History of Psychology [Psych 314]

History of Psychology
Psychology 314

Fall 2016

[Last revised December 7, 2016]

This is an ADVANCED course if taken for the Psychology Major. For the course to count as an advanced course in the major, you need to have had the prerequisites — 5 courses in psychology.  This is a Writing Intensive Course

William M. Mace
Office: Life Sciences 201 [Prof. Raskin]
Office Hours: MF 10:00 am-11:30 am TR 10:45 am-11:30 am

and especially by Appointment
Extension: X2343
Preferred contact —  E-Mail: william.mace@trincoll.edu
Personal Website

Required Reading

All online

Resource Reading

Hilgard, Ernest R. (1987). Psychology in America: A Historical Survey.   On reserve in the library.  You should get to the library as soon as possible to get familiar with what you can find in this book.   One of the best resources for your paper.  As a bonus, I have made a copy of the huge list of references and now give you a link to that.

Resources for History of Psychology  Also on Menu tab at top of page.
Expanded History of Psychology Reading List.  Also on Menu tab at top of page.

Course Work

Grades will be based on written work and class participation. Class participation 15%, Quizzes 25%, and 60% written work (semester project).

Class participation will be based on attendance, your willingness to talk in class, and performance on the full range of assignments that I’ll call “homework.”

Scheduled quizzes may be necessary to make sure you are keeping up.


Your main written work for the semester will be a series of papers on a topic drawn from our series of suggestions. These really will be successive stages of one paper, but each stage will require a serious effort and will be graded.

Our list of possible paper topics

The assignments and dates due are these:

Due Date: September 22.  The first paper topic should be selected.
Due Date: October 13. The Full Proposal plus complete bibliography to be turned in. 10% of final grade.
Due Date:November 10. The First Full Draft of the paper is due. 10% of Final Grade
Due Date:December 1. Second draft of paper due. 15% of Final Grade.
Due Date:December 16 Final Draft of Paper Due. 25% of Final Grade.


Quiz I Oct. 4 5%
Quiz II Oct. 20 5%
Quiz III Nov. 3 5%
Quiz IV Nov. 15 5%
Quiz V  Dec. 1 5%

Schedule of Classes

Class 1
September 6
Our course “map” If you don’t see this open, check your Downloads and open in Excel.

Timeline for history of the earth
Animated timeline. With commercials.

See Moodle for assigned article for Thursday discussion.  Each person is assigned a specific article.

Questions to answer for Thursday class –due on Moodle Wednesday night 10 pm

Notice in the left hand column that you have TWO assignments to complete before Thursday’s class:  (1)  Answering the short set of questions linked there, and (2) Reading a “sample” history issue article.

Introduction to the course. Every day, every moment, things are happening all over the world and the universe. In history, we ask both what happened and WHY it happened. Two opposite possibilities are (1) It is all an accident and (2) It is all predetermined. Then there are all the “in between” possibilities. Those are what make interesting historical puzzles.  The two most common influences proposed to explain changes are (1) the Zeitgeist [spirit of the times] and (2) the great person.   In a Zeitgeist explanation, the individual people are regarded as not so important and it is asserted that the momentum toward a certain change was so consistent, that it would have occurred no matter who the people were.  A great person explanation would say that a change only occurred because a certain important person did what he or she did, and that history would have been very different without that person.

A major emphasis of this course is that core issues and stances on those issues, once noticed, rarely go away.  What we look at in Plato and Aristotle were first discussed several thousand years ago, but the topics continue to be alive today, as you will see.

Class 2
September 8

Your assigned Moodle article that is an example of a good history paper, raising and examining issues

Discussion of questions submitted last night

Discussion of model papers about issues in history of psychology. Groups

 Class 3
September 13
Add/Drop Period ends

Discussion of questions submitted last Wednesday night

Discussion of model papers about issues in history of psychology. Groups


 Class 4
September 15
Weimer — Plato and Chomsky Psycholinguistics and Plato’s Paradoxes of the Meno. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 15-33.

Proof in Meno with diagrams;
Numbers as shapes

Read: Aristotle’s Psychology


Aristotle’s 4 ’causes’

Plato and rationalism. Thinking about mathematical reasoning and mathematical “objects.”

Major aspects of Plato — essence, primacy of the abstract, anamnesis

Note what Weimer tells you about Aristotle as well


Aristotle — Nominalism, 4 causes, teleology

 Class 5 September 20
 Required reading:General remarks introducing Kuhn by Kentucky Professor

Kuhn Summary

Today’s topic is Philosophy of Science

Famous example of Theory

20th Century sequence:  Logical positivism, Popper, Kuhn

Quick Popper

Kuhn — Normal science, paradigms, and revolutions

Ideas of Karl Popper as well.  Falsifiability as criterion of science.  Consider what a theory forbids and look for THAT. Popper’s main work — The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Opposite of “confirmationism.”

Compare “practical” or “applied” areas.  Medicine vs. Biology; Engineering vs. Physics.  Working with particular, individual cases vs. general principles and laws.

 Class 6 September 22 Meditation 1

Meditation 6

Begin Descartes — who else was a rationalist?

Rationalism, Mechanism, Mind-Body dualism

Deadline for paper topic selection

 Class 7 September 27   Locke intro British empiricism 1

Primary and secondary qualities

 Class 8 September 29  Hume Treatise of Human Nature. Vol. I, Part IV, Section 2.  Locke — Berkeley — Hume

Review — key phrases associated with thinkers.

Class 9 October 4  Quiz 1

Kant and Psychology

Kant notes

Class 10 October 6  Good Kant intro

Kant’s Prolegomena



Oct. 10-11 Trinity Days WORK ON PAPERS

Class 11 October 13 Read paper about Thomas Reid on Moodle

Reid’s “Faculties”

Paper on phrenology by Bakan on Moodle.

Fowler phrenology diagram         Fowler title page      Fowler scored page William Hamilton against phrenology.

Last day to withdraw from classes

Thomas Reid — Known for “Scottish common sense realism” and “faculty” psychology.

Full 500 word Proposal plus complete bibliography Due


Class 12 October 18
Wozniak on mind and brain Read: Sections II and III

Outline from Boring

Look ahead to Francis Crick’s Astonishing Hypothesis. One review.


“Brain” people. Note Gall, then Fechner, Helmholtz, Müller

Psychology “proper”
Class 13 October 20 Quiz 2


Saturday is Fechner Day!

2016 Fechner Day early celebration

Read: Introduction to Wundt’s major work by Rob Wozniak

Mid Term is Oct. 24
 Class 14 October 25 Read:

Wundt intro in the Classics


Wundt related words:  consciousness, introspection, sensation, elements (chemistry), apperception, physiological psychology; experimental psychology; stimulus error (Titchener).


Class 15 October 27 G. Stanley Hall’s interpretation of the history at the time.
Darwin, James and Functionalism
Class 16
November 1
Class 17 November 3 Quiz 3

James McKeen Cattell on “Mental” testing


 Galton on prayer — go to galton.org. Click on “collected works” in yellow on blue menu bar. Then, 6 lines down, click on “lists of published works.” Then, in the journal column, find the paper in 1872.

Remember Galton for “Nature vs. Nurture.”

Cattell follows Galton

Class 18
November 8
Class highlights of James



 Class 19
November 10

Watson Introduction

Watson Commentary

Watson classic

History of Watson acceptance

First full draft of paper due

Pavlov Watson   Hull  Skinner

Watson as obvious heir of Locke.  See also the Wikipedia page on John B. Watson

Freud and Clinical Psychology
 Class 20
November 15
Quiz 4

Morton Prince 

Freud and Clinical Psychology

Freud and Jung at Clark

Fancher on Clark meeting

Clark 1909 photo

Clark photo key

Japanese in Clark photo

Witmer –– First clinic; Kraeplin (Wundt also); Zilboorg  — Medical psychology, IOL

Institute of Living

Boulder Model

Women in Psychology
 Class 21
November 17
  Read:Furumoto & Scarborough 1986

Women in U.S. psychology [APA]

Eleanor Gibson — Trin

African Americans in Psychology
 Class 22
November 22

Full length paper on Sumner


Classic reference —Even the Rat was White by Robert V. Guthrie 

African Americans in psychology — G. Stanley Hall again.

Sumner => Kenneth and Mamie Phipps Clark

Gestalt Psychology
 Class 23
November 29
Read:Intro from our Classics set

Classics collection on Gestalt psychology

Michael Bach displays that include many Gestalt effects.

Gestalt “Family Tree” from Barry Smith


 Henle– Gestalt therapy is NOT Gestalt psychology
Behaviorism and the Cognitive Revolution
 Class 24
December 1
Quiz 5

Guide to this section

Woodworth — Psychological Review, 50, 1943,  10-32

Kendler — “Blind Alley” ?

Readings from Baars, The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology,  are on Moodle site.  Read:  Chapters 4 and 5 and the interviews with Jenkins and Chomsky.


The Woodworth paper is to keep us “honest.”  What are MOST psychologists doing?  Variety.

Second draft of paper due tonight

 Class 25
December 6
 Continuing section guide  


 Class 26
December 8
 Finishing the course




Last Day of Classes

Finishing the cognitive revolution — Piaget and cognitive development


Lab vs “Real World”

Final Paper Due Friday December 16 (scheduled Final Exam Day)