Barbara Gittings and Kay Lahusen Final Research Paper & Slides for LGBTQ Historic Site.

Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen’s Lesbian Activism

Pedro Bonilla

Queer America

Professor Gieseking

10 May 2017

 

Site: Barbara Gittings and Kay Lahusen home, 21st and Locust Streets, Philadelphia, PA.

“As a teenager, I had to struggle alone to learn about myself and what it meant to be gay.  Now for [48] years I’ve had the satisfaction of working with other gay people all across the country to get the bigots off our backs, to oil the closet door hinges, to change prejudiced hearts and minds, and to show the gay love is good for us and for the rest of the world too. It’s hard work—but it’s vital, and it’s gratifying, and it’s often fun!” –Barbara Gittings

 

Introduction of the Site:

            Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen home is located at 21st and Locust Streets, Philadelphia, PA.  This home is eligible to be an LGBTQ historic national site.  In relations to the criteria for evaluation, this home consists of significance in American history through its association with Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen and with their LGBTQ civil rights movement.  As well, the integrity of the location, of which it has been dedicated as “Barbara Gittings Way.”

This home has been recognized and honored for Gittings and Lahusen’s gay civil rights advocacy.  This is the home that both lesbian activists Gittings and Lahusen resided throughout their dedicated years of fighting for LGBTQ equal rights.  On October 1st of 2012, Philadelphia City Councilman Mark Squilla dedicated Locust Street between 12th and 13th street, of which the home is located at, as “Barbara Gittings Way.”[1]  This signified Gittings’ greatest achievements towards American history on positively impacting the LGBTQ community.

The “Barbara Gittings Way” dedication launched an Equality Forum’s LGBT History Month of each day honoring “Gay Pioneers,” including her.  This nonprofit organization coordinates LGBT History Month, documentaries, and education, in relations to LGBT civil rights.[2]  The Equality Forum also successfully petitioned the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission for a historic marker that honors Barbara Gittings, Frank Kameny, and “Gay Pioneers” for beginning the LGBTQ civil rights movement in front of Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, from 1965 to 1969.[3]

In relations to honorary recognition, both Gittings and Lahusen were given dedication with the Matlovich’s plaque in Chicago’s Legacy Walk.[4]  This commemorated the twenty-fifth anniversary of National Coming Out Day on October 11th of 2012.  The Matlovich’s plaque recognized their contributions on LGBTQ individuals by making history and culture.

These dedications serve to introduce Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen’s achievements, of which their lesbian activism took a hard and changing stance on the LGBTQ civil rights movement.  I discuss their home as their revolutionary accomplishments. “[Gittings] was one of the rare people in the homophile movement—before Stonewall—who took a militant stance….And she not only took a militant stance, but she was in the forefront,” said David Carter, the author of Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution.[5]

I propose that Barbara Gittings and Kay Lahusen’s home be made an LGBTQ historic national site.  Doing so would respectfully recognize and honor their lesbian activism that has influenced the LGBTQ community with empowerment, and changes to institutional oppression.  Their works are unaware, even by the LGBTQ community, because, as lesbian women, they were considered “second-class citizens.” I will, therefore, discuss on their greatest achievements to signify the home.

 

Detailed History of the Site:

            Barbara Gittings (1932-2007) and Kay Tobin Lahusen (1930- ) were gay civil rights activists for forty-eight years in the United States.  They were lesbian partners, until Gittings’ death of breast cancer at age 74.  They resided in Pennsylvania, throughout their many years of fighting against the institutions from and further oppressing LGBTQ individuals.   Kay Tobin Lahusen is the first openly gay American woman photojournalist, and Barbara Gittings was greatly known as the mother of the LGBTQ civil rights movement.  Both lesbian women were strongly courageous women who achieved in changing certain institutions from considering homosexuality as a wrongdoing.  They also paved the way for LGBTQ individuals to live their lives freely without any sort of stigmas placed on them by institutions that, at the time, would have affiliated them as sexual deviant, mentally-ill, and immoral.

In 1958, Barbara Gittings founded the New York Chapter of the Daughter of Bilitis (DOB) that was a first national organization for lesbians.  Soon, Gittings became the editor of the DOB’s monthly lesbian magazine called The Ladder, and it succeeded from 1963 to 1966. [6]  This magazine was a turning point for lesbians, in particular, because Gittings purposefully began to include politics and LGBTQ-related issues, and Lahusen tactically empowered lesbian women through her photography of what a lesbian woman looks like.  This achievement brought about a national community among lesbians and channeled LGBTQ awareness and advocacy.

Lahusen began her involvement with, what was considered in the pre-Stonewall period, the homophile movement.  She is responsible for numerous famous pre-Stonewall photographs, depicted in The Ladder.  One of which is Gittings picketing at the second annual Reminder Day picket in front of Independence Hall on July 4th of 1966.[7]  This marks a contribution to the lesbian magazine by popularizing it among the lesbian community and demonstrating the essence to fight for LGBTQ civil rights.  Significantly, Lahusen suggested to Gittings to add the subtitle “A Lesbian Review,” in order to aim a specific audience; in this case, the lesbian community.[8]  In 1966, Gittings was dismissed as editor of The Ladder.  The reason used was that she failed to submit the editions on time; however, the primary reason was that she adopted a militant stance, of which she included political activism against the government’s oppression on the LGBTQ community.[9]

Gittings and Lahusen were dedicated activists well before the outburst of the Stonewall Riot in 1969.  Although many scholars and LGBTQ members would consider the Stonewall Riot to be the start for gay civil rights, the groundbreaking was actually the July 4, 1965 demonstration at Philadelphia’s Independence Hall.  Barbara Gittings and, professional partner, Frank Kameny led this annual demonstration from 1965 to 1969 in hopes of spreading the awareness of LGBTQ oppression and the need for legal protection under the guise of equality.  As well, Kay Lahusen contributed her work by photographing the events for the sake of historically recording, what was known as, the homophile movement or the gay civil rights movement.

This marked the gathering of various people from different cities to picket in front of Independence Hall and the liberty bell. And, “the first time gays and lesbians demanded equality, not just compassion or tolerance.”[10]  During the 1960s, there was nearly 200 gay activists and 40 picketed at Independence Hall in 1965, which is seen as the largest demonstration for gay equality at the time, said Malcolm Lazin, chair of the National LGBT 50th Anniversary Celebration.[11]  Hence, Gittings initiative with the picketing became an idol in the essence to fight for equality, not just tolerance.  Along with Kameny, she was able to help people realize the need to change the institution, including the usage of The Ladder, channeling the annual reminders to the lesbian readers.

During the early 1970s, one of the institutions that both Gittings and Lahusen lobbied was the American Library Association (ALA) from no longer categorizing homosexuality as sexual perversion, and enforcing the production of gay positive literature.  Gittings was not a librarian, yet she joined the, already established organization, Gay Liberation Task Force (GLTF) and served as the coordinator for sixteen years.[12]  She was responsible for the creation of a first ever gay bibliography, along with members from the GLTF.

Gittings had her committee (GLTF) release newsletters about their mission—homosexuality no longer categorized as sexual perversion—and produced short write-ups about their activities in making their voice heard, of which they always included the following quotation: “Catalog librarians declare that 15 million gay Americans refuse to be called Sexual Aberrations.”[13]  One of the successful activities that made their mission heard by the ALA was the “Hug A Homosexual” booth at 1971 ALA annual conference in Dallas.[14]  This tactic was to make homosexuals visible and to demonstrate that they are harmful and just as human as any heterosexual.  As a result, “In the last days of the conference, we got both the Council (the elected policy-making body of ALA) and the general membership to pass our gay resolution.”[15]  One of which was opposing employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.[16]

By the fall of 1970, she and the TGFL met and annotated a first ever gay bibliography.   This collection of literature was called The First Gay Book Award and it was spread in Dallas’ ALA annual conference.  There were 4,000 copied made in order to reach the level of recognition.[17]  Once they got the pro-gay resolution, they started to publicize ALA events, in relations to fighting for gay equal rights.  Importantly, many areas of expertise such as religion and law required a brief overview of homosexuality; therefore, Gittings and the GLTF conducted categorizations.

Another institution that both lesbian activists fought against was the American Psychiatry Association (APA).  Their mission was to no longer label homosexuality as a mental disorder under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM).  Frank Kameny began this need of institutional change and both Gittings and Lahusen and worked alongside.  Except for Lahusen, they served as part of the panel in the APA’s 1972 annual conference.  Successfully, the APA eliminated the notion of homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1987.

Gittings, along with a group of gay activists, disrupted the APA convention in San Francisco, in 1970.  She accused the profession to be prejudicial against homosexuals and, through her words, she said, “Stop talking about us and start talking with us.”[18]  This implied that heterosexuals ought not to discuss on the topic of homosexuality when they are not one themselves; therefore, a homosexual is a source to which will serve well over the topic.  This disruption, as a result, had the APA hold its first ever panel called “Lifestyles of Non-Patient Homosexuals” in Washington DC.

Gittings took a further step with her activism and held exhibit, such as “Gay Love: Good Medicine”, about homosexuality, at APA annual conferences, to doctors who were trained to think that homosexuality was a disease.[19]  In 1972, both Gittings and Frank Kameny, who publicly declared war on APA, served in the panel in its annual conference in Dallas.  Importantly, the idea of having a gay psychiatrist speak in the panel was both Gittings and Lahusen’s.  Gittings was able to persuade John E. Fryer, under the conditions that he would speak in a disguise and be named Dr. Anonymous because, in 1972, one can be dismissed from their profession on the basis of sexual orientation.[20]  Consequently, in 1973, the APA held a convention to vote on the question of whether homosexuality is a mental disorder or not, and the results were as followed: 5, 854 psychiatrists voted to remove it from the DSM and 3, 810 voted to retain it.[21]

 

Trends in Literature:

In this section, I will touch upon trends, in relations to Gittings and Lahusen’s greatest achievements.  These trends will serve as knowledge on the basis of emphasizing the importance of their works and reasons towards recognizing and honoring their home, by making it an LGBTQ historic national monument.

In Rodger’s Streitmatter’s Lesbian and Gay Press, he connects The Ladder as an act of resistance, suggesting it to be considered as a militant magazine.  The reason is that it displayed defiance on the dominant social order in the mid-1900s.  It did so by “promoting public demonstrations, reporting from a gay perspective and fighting back against the establishment media.”[22]  This form of militant publication encouraged lesbian women to demand equal rights for homosexuals rather than to just be tolerated.  Streitmatter also provides an analysis of Gittings and Lahusen’s strategies towards building a unified and vocal lesbian community.  One of the strategies was Lahusen’s approach of publishing photographed lesbian women, so that readers have a sense of what lesbian women appeared to be—happy, strong, and diverse.  Another strategy, as mentioned, was when Gittings added the subtitle “The Lesbian Review” to specifically aim the lesbian community.  This allowed Gittings to channel political advocacy and LGBTQ related issues, as well as making the word “lesbian” no longer unspeakable.

Lesbian activism was the means “to respond to and stop violence against gays and lesbians.”[23]  In Valerie Jenness and Kendal Broad’s Antiviolence Activism and the (In) Visibility of Gender in the Gay/Lesbian and Women’s Movement, both writers make a connection of gay-lesbian activism with the concept of feminists uncovering the amount of sexual abuse of women.  They signify the need of data record, which serves as a guide towards uncovering fact and will serve as the realism of abuse imposed on the LGBTQ community.  Jenness and Broad mention that gay-lesbian activism is prevalent because of the high number of unreported hate crimes.  They also mention that violence imposed on homosexuals is the essence of gay-lesbian activism in sponsoring anti-violence projects, in order to protect people from violence “while simultaneously attempting to change the conditions that lead to such violence.”[24]  In regards to Gittings and Lahusen’s lesbian activism, the tactic, the advocacy, and the public education campaigns are all acts of committing antiviolence activism, which allowed them to peacefully lobby the ALA and APA.

Significantly, Gittings and Lahusen were independent women who worked to fight for LGBTQ civil rights, while educating the lesbian community about homosexuality and their rights.  In Lenelotte von Bothmer and Michel Vale’s Women and Politics, they provide an understanding of “A woman’s situation in politics [as] a peculiar kind of isolation.” [25]  In other words, women in politics or activism are unsupported and discouraged by the neoliberal, patriarchal society; especially, in the 1960s, because they were seen as “second-class citizens.”  They did not fit in the notion of heteronormativity, of which they were non-males, non-heterosexuals, and non-middle income householders.  Hence, both writers also discuss on the ease that men had in politics, of which they were expected to take responsibility for the public good, rather than of women.  In relations to Gittings and Lahusen, both lesbian women encountered obstacles, perpetrated by the oppressors—in this case, the ALA and APA.  It is important to note this concept because both independent, lesbian women worked twice as hard than men did to get their voices heard, while encouraging the lesbian community to fight alongside.

The lesbian advocacy at a feminist lens touches upon the intersectionality of being a woman and a lesbian.  Rather than having men to fight for gay equal rights, not gay and lesbian’s, Gittings and Lahusen took on the approach of lesbian feminism.  By definition, it is “a variety of beliefs and practices based on the core assumption that a connection exists between an erotic and/or emotional commitment to women and political resistance to patriarchal domination.”[26]  The different experiences and views embody lesbian feminism in which lesbians and heterosexual women of different class systems and colored backgrounds all unite to fight for intersectional equality.  This type of activism, although unstated by Gittings and Lahusen themselves, is what made their achievements, towards having institutions no longer referring homosexuality as a mental disorder and categorizing it  as sexual perversion, possible.  If we take into account of gay men doing what Gittings and Lahusen did, then the privilege and rights would have been given to men only.

The topic of lesbian identity is worth mentioning, in relations to the essence of gathering support over a social issue.  According to E.M. Ettorre’s Lesbians, Women, and Society, lesbian identity is a “‘counter-identity’ which challenges directly a society based on male-oriented heterosexual relations.”[27]  Lesbian women know that their lives would differ from everybody else’s in terms of struggling to prosper economically and gain equality.  Importantly, lesbian women are seen lesser than heterosexual women because the institutional norm is for women to have sexual relations with men, not of the same-sex.  I want to raise this notion to demonstrate how much Gittings and Lahusen have gone with their activism.  Already, they were seen down upon, and I would argue that, if they were gay men, they would have achieved equality a lot sooner.

Jack Gieseking’s LGBTQ Spaces and Places provide readers with an understanding of public vs. private sectors, in relations to gender.  “Since the late nineteenth and throughout the twentieth century, most gay, bisexual, and queer men were largely unable to occupy private spaces alone together with the result that their ‘privacy could only be had in public.’”[28]  Lesbian women and transgender people, on the contrary, were often associated with private spaces.  This aspect is key to understanding the importance of Gittings and Lahusen’s accomplishments; especially with the editorial of The Ladder.  Lesbian women were not much unaware of the LGBTQ oppression, occurring throughout the United States.  It can be said that they were uneducated to the extent that they accepted homosexuality as a mental disorder, and feared to have their voices heard.  Gittings and Lahusen channeled the political and social issues in this lesbian magazine, of which lesbian women were more aware of the issues occurring and were convinced to channel their voices in the public spaces.  Gittings encouraged lesbian women to publicly demonstrate, and empowered them as independent and strong lesbian women—no longer to have the need to depend on men in office.

Another trend to discuss on is the generational political activism.  Young citizens tend to choose to politically express themselves and express their voices through particular organizational structures, such as social media, journalism, holding political office, lobbying, et cetera.[29]  Because the forms of political activism have evolved, there is a distinct generational shift, of which young citizens do not partake into political or social advocacy, but, rather depend on the older generation to do the “physical work.”  Gittings and Lahusen were of the young generation, when they first started their activism.  They did not depend on the older generation; rather they took initiative in the pursuit of social justice.  In addition, there are new social movements that young citizens choose to be in, mainly because the “goals of new social movements often focus upon achieving social change through direct action strategies and community-building, as well as by altering lifestyles and social identities…”[30]  This suggests that, at the time Gittings and Lahusen were fighting for LGBTQ civil rights, many were in support of the movement because of their encouragement to fight for equality and identify their social identities as part of the LGBTQ community.

 

Discussion: Arguments for the Sites Inclusion:

Throughout this excerpt, I presented readers with Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen’s greatest accomplishments that have positively influenced the LGBTQ community.  I argue that their home be considered an LGBTQ historic national site.  Although those accomplishments may not have been done in the home, the home is associated with these special events that have shaped LGBTQ history as part of American history.  This site is meant to be recognized and honored through Gittings and Lahusen’s lesbian forty-eight years of lesbian activism.  My argument will be framed in the sense of understanding what the LGBTQ community would be without these lesbian women’s dedication to changing certain institutions and initiative activism in general.

The Ladder was an important component to the national organization called The Daughters of Bilitis.  It served as a communication base to the lesbian community by channeling information about LGBTQ political and social-related issues.  Lesbian women were empowered and, therefore, devoted to act on public demonstrations and no longer depend on the protection of male politicians.  I must say that Gittings shifted this lesbian magazine to a militant stance, which was one of the reasons for her dismissal.  Though, we should not take her dismissal as a an act of failure, but rather as an act of resistance against the oppressive institutions, of which Gittings did not let herself be tamed under a patriarchal society.  Lahusen’s suggestion to Gittings on having actual footage of lesbian women displayed on the front cover of the magazine and subtitled “A Lesbian Review” all made the unity of lesbian women easier and even possible.  Without their works on The Ladder, lesbian women most likely would not have shifted from being in the private space to the public space.

Gittings was responsible for the start of fighting for LGBTQ equal rights, rather than just tolerance of what one is.  She took on the role, along with Frank Kameny, to organize annual reminders in picketing in front of Independence Hall.  Their pictures were taken by not only Lahusen, but also by government officials.  This brought about fear, not knowing what the government would do with those pictures or any relevant information about Gittings and Lahusen, because, at the time, there was no legal protection for LGBTQ individuals.  Nonetheless, the picketing was a brave act of defiance that has been commemorated in a reenactment on July 4th of 2015, as part of the National LGBT 50th Anniversary Ceremony.[31]  Hence, without this initiative, would LGBTQ individuals have stood up for themselves against the government, under the guise of equality?

The American Library Association is one institution that Gittings and Lahusen strongly lobbied.  I argue that without their activism in this association, homosexuality still would have had been categorized as sexual perversion, which builds the stigma that homosexuality is immoral.  Gittings brought to the table creative and tactical ideas such as the “Hug a Homosexual,” which drew attention to the ALA in passing the gay resolution.  I want to also mention that Gittings, along with members from the Gay Task Force Liberation, was responsible for the creation of a first ever gay bibliography, called the First Gay Award.  Therefore, without their works in the ALA, would there ever have been a gay bibliography that consists of positive gay literature?  Individuals would find books on homosexuality in the abnormal psychology, which makes a difference when wanting to learn more about your community.  Instead of learning, though, one is building hatred towards oneself under the guise that homosexuality is immoral, sinful, and sexual deviant.

Gittings work on the APA influenced the change from removing homosexuality as a mental disorder under the DSM.  Gittings was responsible for recruiting the gay psychiatrist, named Dr. John E. Fryer.  This started the discussion on the homosexuality, which then initiated the APA to have a first ever committee to talk upon the topic.  In 2006, Gittings, along with Frank Kameny, received the APA’s first annual civil rights award.

Gittings and Lahusen’s activism has already been given dedication for the impact that it has on the LGBTQ community and in American history.  In the 2005 APA’s fifty-eight Institute on Psychiatric Services, Gittings was given the APA’s first John E. Fryer, M.D., award, which recognizes individuals who have made significant contributions to LGBTQ mental health.[32]  And, in 2012, the City Council of Philadelphia voted on approving the dedication of the intersection of Gittings and Lahusen’s home as the “Barbara Gittings Way.”  Furthermore, Gittings and Lahusen were honored and recognized with the Matlovich’s plaque in Chicago’s Legacy Walk.  These recognitions are to be taken into consideration when deciding on whether or not to dedicate the home as an LGBTQ historic national site.  They received these dedications for their contribution on the LGBTQ community that has enriched American history.

 

Conclusion:

Thus, Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen fought for gay civil rights movement because they strongly believed in the notion of being treated equal, regardless on anyone’s sexual orientation.  They are considered to be “gay pioneers” or idols who have enriched American history by changing institutions, such as the American Library Association and the American Psychiatry Association, from oppressing American people.  Their forty-eight years of lesbian activism earns them the strong consideration of honoring and recognizing their home as an LGBTQ historical national site.  It is not just a simple plaque, but a representation of their works that has positively influenced the LGBTQ community.  They paved the way for LGBTQ individuals to live without the harsh stigmas of what it meant to be a homosexual and to live with dignity and respect.  Barbara Gittings was and Kay Tobin Lahusen is a strong LGBTQ idol, whose work will live on through American history and in remembrance of those who fought alongside.  In honoring and recognizing their home, Americans will be aware of the works of two independent lesbian women.  Their lesbian feminism touched upon intersectionality and prevented patriarchy from further oppressing LGBTQ individuals.

        

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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“Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen gay history papers and photographs 1855-2009 [bulk 1963-2007] D.” Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen gay history papers and photographs. Accessed May 5, 2017. http://archives.nypl.org/mss/6397#controlaccess.

 

“Barbara Gittings.” Barbara Gittings | LGBTHistoryMonth.com. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.lgbthistorymonth.com/barbara-gittings?tab=biography.

 

Barbara Gittings, Gay in Library Land: The Gay and Liberation Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years (Delaware: McFarland, 1990).

 

“Barbara Gittings Residence Historic Marker Dedication.” Event – Barbara Gittings Residence Historic Marker Dedication | Equality Forum. 2017. Accessed May 08, 2017. http://www.equalityforum.com/event/barbara-gittings-residence-historic-marker-dedication.

 

“Barbara Gittings, the mother of the LGBT civil rights movement.” Lesbian News. February 20, 2016. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.lesbiannews.com/barbara-gittings-a-lesbian-and-activist/.

 

Bothmer, Von Lenelotte and Vale, Michel. “Women and Politics.” International Journal of Sociology 8, no.3 (1978). https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20629781.pdf

 

Burton, Neel. “When Homosexuality Stopped Being a Mental Disorder.” Psychology Today. September 18, 2015. Accessed May 10, 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201509/when-homosexuality-stopped-being-mental-disorder.

 

“Collection Info.” Gittings, Barbara and Kay Tobin Lahusen Papers • Collection • LGBT-RAN. Accessed May 10, 2017. https://www.lgbtran.org/Collection.aspx?ID=185.

 

Dan Avery, “Activists Will Reenact Historic 1964 Gay Rights Protest At Philadelphia’s Independence Hall,” NewNowNext, July 03, 2015, http://www.newnownext.com/activists-will-reenact-historic-1964-gay-rights-protest-at-philadelphias-independence-hall/07/2015/.

 

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Faderman, Lillian. “The Gay Revolution. The Story of the Struggle.”  (Simon & Schuster, 2016).

 

Fox, Margalit. “Barbara Gittings, 74, Prominent Gay Rights Activist Since ’50s, Dies.” The New York Times. March 14, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/15/obituaries/15gittings.html.

 

Gallo, Marcia M. “To Barabara Gittings, 1932-2007). Thank You.” Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 14, no. 3 (2007). http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.trincoll.edu/ehost/detail/detail?sid=25a340ca-7bde-4b82-a51b-a5101294d61b%40sessionmgr104&vid=0&hid=113&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1aWQmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#AN=509836205&db=brb.

 

Gittiings, Barbara. “Gay Liberation: From Task Force to Round Table.” American Libraries 30, no. 11 (1999). http://ej4da6xn7z.scholar.serialssolutions.com/?sid=google&auinit=B&aulast=Gittings&atitle=Gay+liberation:+from+task+force+to+round+table&title=American+libraries+(Chicago,+Ill.)&volume=30&issue=11&date=1999&spage=74&issn=0002-9769.

 

Gittings, Barbara. “Show and Tell.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 12, no. 3 (2008). http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.trincoll.edu/doi/pdf/10.1080/19359700802111742?needAccess=true

 

Jen Jack Gieseking. “LGBTQ Spaces and Places.” National Park Foundation (2016). www.nps.gov/subjects/tellingallamericansstories/lgbtqthemestudy.htm.

 

Jenness, Valerie and Broad, Kendal. “Antiviolence Activism and the (In) Visibility of Gender in the Gay/Lesbian and Women’s Movements.” Gender and Society 8, no. 3 (1994). https://www.jstor.org/stable/189713?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

 

Keehnen, Owen. “The Legacy Walk (Chicago).” Glbtq Inc. (2015). http://www.glbtqarchive.com/arts/legacy_walk_chicago_A.pdf.

 

Martine, Del and Lyon, Phyllis. “Daughters of Bilitis and the Ladder that Teetered.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 5, no.3 (2001). http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.trincoll.edu/doi/pdf/10.1300/J155v05n03_13?needAccess=true.

 

McDonald, Natalie Hope. “Barbara Gittings Way to Be Dedicated.” GPhilly, Septemeber 12, 2012.

 

MD Drescher, Jack. “Honoring Barbara Gittings.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 12, no. 3

(2008). http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.trincoll.edu/doi/pdf/10.1080/19359700802111775?needAccess=true.

 

Miller , Faderman, and Tobin Wicker. “Barbara Gittings (1932- ).” PBS. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/outofthepast/past/p5/gittings.html.

 

Naples, Nancy A. “Community Activism and Feminist Politics.” Organizing Across Race, Class, and Gender. Myra Marx Ferree, University of Connecticut (1998).

 

Rubick, Margaret. “The Women Who Took On the APA.” Margaret Rubick. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.margaretrubick.com/press-articles/the-women-who-took-on-the-apa/.

 

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Raising a Militant Voice in the 1960s.” Lesbian and Gay Press 12, no. 2 (2013). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08821127.1995.10731716.

 

 

 

[1] McDonald, Natalie Hope. “Barbara Gittings Way to Be Dedicated.” GPhilly, Septemeber 12, 2012.

[2] “Gay Pioneers,” EqualityForum.com, accessed April 27, 2017, http://www.equalityforum.com/organization.

[3] Ibid

[4] Owen Keehnen, “The Legacy Walk (Chicago),” glbtq Inc. (2015): 1

[5] Margalit Fox, “Barbara Gittings, 74, Prominent GAY Rights Activist Since ‘50s, Dies,” The New York Times, March 15, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/15/obituaries/15gittings.html.

[6] Marcia M. Gallo, “To Barbara Gittings, 1932-2007: Thank You.,” Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 1, no. 3 (2007): Biography Reference Bank Select (509836205).

[7] “Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen gay history papers and photographs 1855-2009 [bulk 1963-2007] D.” Barbara Gittings and Kay Tobin Lahusen gay history papers and photographs. Accessed May 5, 2017. http://archives.nypl.org/mss/6397#controlaccess.

[8] Margaret Rubick, “The Women Who Took On the APA,” Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 19, no. 2 (2017).

[9] Ibid

[10]Dan Avery, “Activists Will Reenact Historic 1964 Gay Rights Protest At Philadelphia’s Independence Hall,” NewNowNext, July 03, 2015, http://www.newnownext.com/activists-will-reenact-historic-1964-gay-rights-protest-at-philadelphias-independence-hall/07/2015/.

[11] Ibid

[12] Barbara Gittings, Gay in Library Land: The Gay and Liberation Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years (Delaware: McFarland, 1990), 9.

[13] Ibid, 4.

[14] Marcia M. Gallo, “To Barbara Gittings, 1932-2007: Thank You.,” Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 1, no. 3 (2007): Biography Reference Bank Select (509836205).

[15] Barbara Gittings, Gay in Library Land: The Gay and Liberation Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years (Delaware: McFarland, 1990), 9.

[16] Barbara Gittings, “Gay Liberation: From Task Force to Round Table.” American Libraries 30, no. 11 (Dec 19999).

[17] Barbara Gittings, Gay in Library Land: The Gay and Liberation Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years (Delaware: McFarland, 1990), 7.

[18] Jack Drescher MD, Honoring Barbara Gittings (Routledge, 2008), 297.

[19] Miller, Wicker Tobin, and Fadermana. “Barbara Gittings (1932- ).” PBS. Accessed May 08, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/outofthepast/past/p5/gittings.html.

[20] Jack Drescher MD, Honoring Barbara Gittings (Routledge, 2008), 297.

[21] Burton, Neel. “When Homosexuality Stopped Being a Mental Disorder.” Psychology Today. September 18, 2015. Accessed May 08, 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201509/when-homosexuality-stopped-being-mental-disorder.

[22] Rodger Streitmatter, Raising a Militant Voice in the 1960s, (Boston, London: Faber and Faber, 1995), 143.

[23] Valerie Jenness and Kendal Broad, Antiviolence Activism and the (In) Visibility of Gender in the Gay/Lesbian and Women’s Movement, (1994), 408.

[24] Ibid, 418.

[25] Lenelotte von Bothmer and Michel Vale, Women and Politics, (Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 1978), 108.

[26] E.M. Ettorre, Lesbians, Women, and Society, (London, Boston, and Henely: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980),  58.

[27] Ibid 34

[28] Jen Jack Gieseking, LGBTQ Spaces and Places, 14-3.

[29] Pippa Norris, Young People & Political Activism: From the Politics of Loyalties to the Politics of Choice?, (Massachusetts: Harvard University), 1.

[30] Ibid, 7.

[31] Dan Avery, “Activists Will Reenact Historic 1964 Gay Rights Protest At Philadelphia’s Independence Hall,” NewNowNext, July 03, 2015, http://www.newnownext.com/activists-will-reenact-historic-1964-gay-rights-protest-at-philadelphias-independence-hall/07/2015/.

[32] Margaret Rubick, “The Women Who Took On the APA,” Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 19, no. 2 (2017).

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