Esta Noche Final Research Paper & Slides for LGBTQ Historic Site

Esta Noche Final Research Paper & Slides for LGBTQ Historic Site

 

Summary

Esta Noche is nationally significant space under the NRHP criterion because it was the first gay bar in San Francisco that catered to Latino patrons. This is significant to gay Latinos everywhere, who have historically faced multiple discriminations for being both gay and not white. This Site not only provided a safe space for gay Latinos, but also functioned as a place where gay Latinos could network, organize, and host fundraisers for health clinics, AIDS and lower income populations in the Mission district of San Francisco.

Esta Noche was founded by Anthony Lopez and Manuel Quijano in 1979. The duo was tired of the discrimination that gay Latinos faced in the predominantly white Castro district of San Francisco. Gay Latinos in the Castro would often have to show several forms of ID to enter the bars, were charged higher prices for their drinks and could even be thrown out just because they were not white.  Lopez and Quijano wanted to open Esta Noche so that gay Latino men would have a safe space to network, socialize, and enjoy themselves without having to worry about discrimination or their safety.

Lopez and Quijano’s vision for a Latino gay bar became a reality when they sold their home to acquire the funds needed and found a space that they could afford; an old hotel lobby that had been turned into a bar located at 3079 16th and Mission St.[1] This space was a former “rough-and tumble straight bar whose clients were not pleased by the change.”[2] Despite harassment and threats by some of the former patrons, Esta Noche endured, and over time became a community institution where working-class Latinos could feel at home.

Over time, Esta Noche expanded its reach into the community and became more inclusive, becoming a safe space for not only gay Latinos but those who identified as bi, transgender and questioning as well. This inclusion was important to the LGBTQ Latino community, as it helped to make transgender Latinos and drag queens more visible in Latino space, and would help the bar to become well known for its inclusive atmosphere.

The Live entertainment featured at Esta Noche included salsa dancing, comedy shows, and most famously drag shows.  As one reporter described watching a drag show featuring Selena “Looking around the space, the spirit felt snatched from a dream, one of inclusion and celebration and diversity, the primary tenets of San Francisco.”[3]  Esta Noche became the self-proclaimed “drag home” to the now famous drag queen Persia, who first performed her song “Google Google Apps Apps” on the stage of Esta Noche.[4] , [5]  In addition to the live entertainment, Esta Noche was featured in the HBO television series titled “Looking”, a show about a group of gay friends living in San Francisco.[6]

Despite the publicity that came from being featured on TV, and the efforts of the “Save Esta Noche” fundraiser put on by the queens of San Francisco drag queens, Esta Noche closed its doors for good in 2014 due to the inability to pay the increased property taxes. The loss of the bar is seen as another victim of the gentrification that is so widespread in San Francisco, and especially in the Mission district due to the influx of “technology workers and the popularity of Airbandb”.[7] While the gentrification of the mission may be responsible for Esta Noche and other small community businesses to disappear, the legacy of the bar does not need to be and cannot be forgotten.

Esta Noche should be preserved as a national historic landmark so that future generations will be able to appreciate an accurate history of LGBTQ spaces. National recognition of Esta Noche is especially important because it would help to diversify LGBTQ history so that it is not whitewashed, as many feel the legacy of Stonewall has become.[8]  From its beginning Esta Noche was able to eliminate the discrimination and exclusion that gay Latinos faced from both outside and within the LGBTQ community of San Francisco, and should be noticed for that accomplishment.

 

Detailed History of the Site

Early History:

Esta Noche was located on 3079 on the corner of 16th and Mission street. The building that was to become Esta Noche was originally:

built in the late 1800’s as a single-story brick building, making it one of the oldest developed parcels in the City. Its original use is unknown, and the brick structure was leveled in the 1906 earthquake.  Rebuilt as a 3-story wood-frame building after the quake, the property became the Hotel Rondel, named after the alleyway to the east. It operated as a place of lodging and brothel until The Great Depression, when it was shuttered. When the economy recovered, the property became a simple hotel and stayed that way until it was sold and renamed the Sincere Hotel. In 1976, there was a fire that gutted the top two floors of the hotel, and there are still bits of char at the top of these steps left in place for history. Rather than rebuild the two burned floors the owner removed them and converted the remaining structure to a commercial space, becoming Esta Noche.[9]

 

The History of Esta Noche

In the 1970’s Gay and Latino activists of GALA (Gay Latino Alliance) succeeded in becoming a visible powerful organization, who called the mission district their home.[10]  The founders of the Gay Latino Alliance were concerned that their lives as gay and lesbians took place in a “predominantly white gay context.”[11]  In an attempt to create a space that was not the traditional white gay bar in san Francisco, Anthony Lopez and Manuel Quijano, both GALA members, decided to sell their home and open a bar. The duo saw the need for a safe gay Latino space, and opened Esta Noche, the First Latino Gay bar in San Francisco.

Esta Noche became a reputable safe space for gay Latino men to go without having to worry about facing the discriminations that many gay men of color had encountered in the white gay bars in the Castro, let alone the discrimination within their own ethnic community.  At Esta Noche, gay Latino men were no longer harassed, called racial slurs, and forced to show several forms of identification just to enter. They did not have to worry about their ethnic community being unaccepting of their sexuality. They now had a place where gay Latinos could feel safe and accepted.

Although Esta Noche was well known for its variety of vibrant entertainment, it was not just the lively drag shows or comedy bodega nights that made Esta Noche and important part of the community. It was also a space where LGBTQ people could gather, organize and host fundraisers for health clinics, people with AIDS, and other lower income groups. It was a place that took great pride in caring for its Latino community, and celebrated the culture of the people in the surrounding Latino neighborhoods. As a result of these contributions to the community, in 2006, Esta Noche was nominated as one of the organizations to be considered for the San Francisco Pride Marshals, an honor presented to individuals or organizations within the LGBTQ community who have attempted to create change and usually are local heroes who have fought for LGBTQ rights over the years.  When being interviewed during his nomination Lopez remarked “The need for a welcoming space has not changed. Some people of color still feel out of place in the Castro but the Esta Noche club welcomes those who have been turned away.”[12]

When a spike in property taxes threatened the bar’s future , the LGBTQ community launched several efforts to try and raise funds.  Despite efforts of the Queens of San Francisco Drag Queens, Heklina and Anna Conda, to hold a show dedicated to raising funds at the door and donating all of the proceeds to keep the bar afloat, as well as the creation of a crowd funding website, the money needed to stay open could not be raised in time, and the bar was sold. Esta Noche has since been renovated and turned into a club that a reporter for the SF Weekly called “another swanky cocktail bar geared toward 20-somethings with disposable income.” A much different venue than the drag bar that catered to gay Latinos.

Sadly, this is yet another victim of the gentrification that is happening in the Mission District in San Francisco and across the US, and the entire LGBTQ community as well.

In October of 2014, The drag queens of Esta Noche returned to the stage but just for one night. “Under the direction of famed Mission artist Rene Yañez, drag queens from the infamous bar mount Las Chicas de Esta Noche: Living la Vida Evicted   a show that promises to keep “the spirit of Esta Noche alive by doing these events,” said Lulu Ramirez, a drag queen who had hosted shows for seven years before the bar closed.”[13]

Ramirez, who arrived in san Francisco from el Salvador when only the age of 18 says Esta Noche felt like the first place she could safely feel gay and connect with her Latino heritage. “It was the place I was like: ‘Oh my God, they’re playing music in Spanish!’” said Ramirez. “But it was not just the music, it was also the men holding hands. It felt like home.”[14] While Esta Noche is no longer occupying a commercial space, it is still alive in spirit.

 

Trends in the Literature

While researching Esta Noche and its impact on the gay Latino community, one of the main themes that stood out was the overwhelming amount of struggle that was expressed by gay Latinos.  Through the lens of intersectionality, it is clear that “gay Latinos have been faced with a “triple stigma and oppression” because they are “not fully accepted in the gay community because of their ethnicity, rejected by their community of origin because of their sexual orientation, and discriminated by the majority culture because of their ethnicity and their sexual orientation.”[15]  In order to fully understand the importance of Esta Noche, it is essential to understand this dichotomy.

To begin with, gender roles in Latino cultures are very well-defined and expected. Males are to follow “Machismo” culture, the “socially constructed, learned and reinforced set of behaviors comprising the content of male gender roles in Latino society. Females are expected to adhere to “Marinasmo” culture, the traditional and culturally prescribed role of woman, which derives from Maria, mother of god and virgin in the catholic church.[16] These strictly defined gender roles in many Latino families combined with the strict teachings of Catholicism are largely to blame for the lack of LGBTQ acceptance within Latino community, increasing the difficulty of Latino individuals in shaping a “gay identity.”[17]  In addition to the pressure of gender roles in the Latino community, those gay Latinos who choose to come out to their loved ones have to worry about the consequences. They must be prepared to face rejection, however “abandoning their communities and families of origin appears to be the only alternative available for some Latinos who want to openly express their sexuality”.[18]  

In addition to the familial, cultural and spiritual pressures from home, gay Latinos are also faced with navigating life in society as a gay minority, where race and class are factors. While San Francisco is considered the “Gay Mecca,” the neighborhoods of San Francisco have very different characteristics.  While the Mission District in San Francisco is known for its Latino population, the neighboring Castro district has the reputation for being predominantly gay and White.  Joel Engardio’s 1999 articleYou Cant Be Gay Youre LatinoA gay Latino identity struggles to emerge, somewhere between the macho Mission and Caucasian Castro” came out in the SF weekly in 1999. This article describes the struggles of Miguel, a waiter from Mexico who moved to San Francisco so that he could be out of the closet. Engerdio writes about Miguel’s struggles:

In the Mission, Miguel feels at home as a Latino. But he must deal with the same religious, family, and machismo influences that he knew in Mexico, and that denounce or ignore his existence as a homosexual. The Castro excites Miguel as a place where his sexuality is accepted. But he encounters a mostly white, sometimes racist community there, and wonders if he will have to give up being Latino in order to be gay.[19]

 

Miguel goes on to explain that even when he is enjoying gay nightlife in the Castro, he still doesn’t feel like he has found a safe space. Engardio explains “In the Castro’s overwhelmingly white gay bars, Miguel can feel as invisible as the woodwork. And he is leery of the white guys who come on to him. “I hate being a fetish,” Miguel says. “They don’t see you as a person. Just an object — Latin meat.”[20]

It is important to explore the depth and scope of the discriminations and complexities that gay Latinos face to fully appreciate the importance of the second theme in the literature: the importance of Esta Noche to the gay Latino community. Bars have always been important in serving as a safe space in gay culture. An article that appeared in the Guardian,  written by a white gay man,  affectionately described gay bars as “a halfway house, a leap towards building the home that calls you, a little but not much different from the one you came from. A home built on love.”[21]

For gay Latinos, Esta Noche was nothing like the home that they come from: It was better, because at the bar they do not face rejection and disapproval from their families and their culture.  It is the place where they could be gay and Latino at the exact same time and not have to compromise who they were.

Esta Noche was the place where race and ethnicity were not an issue. It was a place where Gay Latino men could be around other people who understood their struggles, and identified with them. In Esta Noche there was an equality of culture and a collective understanding that need not be articulated, as it could just be understood.  In Joel Engardio’s article titled “You can’t be gay, you’re Latino”, he interviewed a young man named Gustavo who came to San Francisco to escape his small Mexican town on the Texas border where he was assaulted as a teen for walking with his gay friend.

When Gustavo hangs at Esta Noche, his only worry is having enough money to cover his drinks – or his bets on the latest soccer match playing on the bar TV. It is a comfortable, safe place where everyone seems to know Gustavo’s name. He often befriends new immigrants who shyly wander in, introducing them to the regulars. There are campy drag shows, but not all the clientele at Esta Noche consists of men in dresses. Gustavo and his friends like meeting other “regular” gay Latinos, and they love the mix of over-the-top gay and certifiably macho that coexists at Esta Noche. [Gustavo says] “it’s the most fascinating place in the world,… probably the only gay-drag-sports bar around.[22]

 

Esta Noche was literally and figuratively miles away from the discrimination that Gustavo faced in Mexico. This is an example the importance of Esta Noche. For Gustavo, it provided him with a space to be himself. To enjoy drag shows and sports. To be Gay and Latino at the same time in the same space among others who were just like him. The Bar was able to create a space where there was multi-faceted similarity among patrons that was impossible to find anywhere else.

Danial D’Addario explains

equality means the right to one’s own space, and gay bars provide
a separateness, a freedom from scrutiny, that’s available virtually nowhere else in the culture. Unlike members of marginalized ethnic or religious groups, gay people rarely grow up surrounded by family members who react in their image. There is no mother tongue to describe their experience of life, no tradition to bind them to the world. Gay bars are where gay people have historically found one another to learn that language and invent those traditions. Being gay is not a religion, but a space for people to come together to celebrate who they are in the face of life’s obstacles could be compared to a church.[23]

 

D’Addario ‘s comparison of the gay bar being like a church is an important one, as it illustrates the similarities of those spaces for gay men: both are safe, special, and sacred. The time spent there is cherished, and important, it is the place where critical life moments take place, such as finding a partner, or making a friend.

The trends found in researching Gay Latinos have often described the gay Latino experience as one of shame from family and culture, rejection from society and denial of their own sexualities and desires.  However, the first Latino gay bar in the mission district of San Francisco, Esta Noche, served as a safe haven where all aspects of a gay Latino life could be celebrated.  While Esta Noche is no longer a physical destination, it should be recognized for contribution to the Latino  LGBTQ community and LGBTQ history.

 

Arguments for the Site’s Inclusion:

In 1979, Esta Noche, the first Latino gay bar in San Francisco, opened its doors. This bar provided a space for LGBTQ Latinos to socialize and be socialized. It was a space to watch drag performances and enjoy comedy shows. Beyond the entertainment, Esta Noche was a safe space. Bars and nightclubs have often become safe spaces for LGBTQ people to gather and to be free to be themselves without scrutiny or fear. Greggor Mattson wrote in his article about homonormative gay place making that bars “were the most important cultural institution where newly ‘out’ men were socialized, interpersonal contacts were made, social isolation was alleviated, and community art exhibitions, charity auctions and political meetings were held.”[24] For LGBTQ Latinos, a group that had faced a trifecta of discrimination, Esta Noche provided that space. Journalist Paul Flynn wrote in an article in “The Guardian” explaining that in gay bars “there is a shared vocabulary, built partly around disposition but also the raw necessity to pass on the things that school couldn’t teach you and that church refuses to.[25]  He goes on to write “after the coat-check, you are the majority, not the minority. It is a feeling both strange and new. Because it is essentially a mating ground, it can be cruel and pernicious, but that hardness is dealt out on equal terms.”[26]  Gay bars are more than just a place to dance and have fun they are places to learn about and understand yourself. They are places to find your people, to feel acceptance and to feel at home.

Esta Noche became a powerful example of how gentrification can impact even the most well-loved spaces in a community when the neighborhood saw a rise in property taxes and the bar was unable to stay afloat. Despite an effort to raise the funds through crowdsourcing and a benefit show[27] the first Latino gay bar in the Mission district had to shut its doors.

One common concern that has been evident throughout all of my research is the fear of gentrification erasing this history. Esta Noche was renovated and turned into an upscale nightclub. Emmanuel Hapsis expressed his anger about the bars closing in a piece for KQED titled “Esta Noche to Close. Nothing is Sacred.” In it he shares his feelings of loss at the bar’s closing and writes that “this feels like a tipping point, if not for the entire city, then at least for the LGBTQ community.”[28]  He goes on to question what the future holds: it could be a future where

some start-up will buy your building and turn your studio apartment into an arcade for its millionaire employees. Or maybe this is when a movement of underdogs rises up to stop San Francisco from becoming a gated community packed with slick new lofts and Teslas. Only time will tell which direction we’re headed, but one thing is for sure: time is running out.[29]

 

There is definitely a sense of urgency to try and slow down the disappearance of these well-loved spaces.

Once a space is lost to gentrification, the community is faced with the problem of accurately memorializing that space. When writing about the gentrification in the mission district and the displacement of the Latino community and their spaces, Nancy Mirabal calls the memorials put in place “embedded in a re-scripted historical memory of space and time… they cull safe memories and operate as historical anecdotes ready for tourist consumption.”[30]  While these places are extremely important to LGBTQ history, difficulties arise with memorializing spaces like bars and clubs because these spaces have a history that could be considered overtly sexual.  However, omitting the sexual nature from the historical record would make the memorial to them inaccurate.  Daniel Hirsch’s article published in the “Mission Local” addresses this very issue. He writes “perhaps for a community as diverse as the queer one, no single effort can fully capture the complexity of a history that has long been on the margins. Plaques and texts will inevitably fall short.”[31]  He goes on to discuss that the “participants from the original 1969 [Stonewall] riots protested again—this time not to make history, but to shape the telling of it .”[32]  I feel that this is the key to memorializing LGBTQ spaces, finding a way to commemorate the history accurately and honestly regardless if it makes some people feel uncomfortable.

The gentrification of San Francisco’s mission district has had a negative impact on the Latino LGBTQ community, and the history of the original Queer and Latino spaces are at risk of being forgotten.  There are plenty of sources to identify why this has happened and to prove that the Latino LGBTQ community wants to commemorate the importance of such spaces. The next step is to identify the right way to preserve the memory of spaces like Esta Noche. Queer history is a rich and complex history, and it should not be simplified.  In Daniel Hirsch’s “Mission Local” piece, he quotes a professor of psychology at Alliant International University as saying “a lot of gay kids come into my class and they don’t know their history… the first gay history book written didn’t have the words ‘Latino’ or ‘Hispanic’ anywhere in it.”  The next step is finding ways to commemorate LGBTQ history so that the past is accurately preserved.

And while it may be difficult to preserve LGBTQ history in a way that does not offend some for the overt sexual nature of that history, it is also important to realize how this history is being remembered, as well as why.  For example,

In 2006, openly gay Joe D’Alessandro was appointed president and CEO of the San Francisco Convention and Visitors Bureau. He also started a marketing initiative, now in its fourth year, targeting gay and lesbian travelers, with colorful images of the Castro on the agency’s home page and the tagline ‘Gay Capital of the World’ as the link to gay- and lesbian-themed events that even non-gay travelers might enjoy while visiting San Francisco.[33]

Isn’t this just “Pink washing”? and is this for the benefit of the LGBTQ community or for the benefit of tourism revenue? While LGBTQ spaces need to be recognized for their importance in LGBTQ and also American history, is it appropriate to push an LGBTQ agenda just to make money? This is something to consider when thinking about how LGBTQ spaces are chosen to be commemorated. should not be inclusive only to the spaces that will bring in revenue, but spaces that will enhance LGBTQ history.  Esta Noche fits that criteria.

 

Conclusion:

Esta Noche, the First Latino Gay bar in San Francisco was forced to close its doors in 2014, after 34 years. This bar did not close its doors due to lack of business or community interest. In fact, if one were to locate the bar’s old Facebook page, it would be clear immediately that this was a well-loved venue by the Latino LGBTQ community across the United States. Esta Noche’s closing can be directly correlated with the gentrification of the Mission district in the city of San Francisco. The loss of this space, as well as the evidence of loss felt by the community, provide us with these powerful questions: what is the importance of bars to the LGBTQ community, and what does it mean to the community when they disappear? with the support of  many first person accounts that articulate the importance of Esta Noche to the Latino community, the impact that the bar had on those who attended for many years and the impact of the loss and how it was felt by all LGBTQ Latinos all over the country. I have found that while we cannot make these spaces return, we can preserve their existence by not letting them become forgotten It is through commemoration of these spaces that their importance to LGBTQ history can be remembered. This is why I believe that Esta Noche deserves to join Stonewall, in being recognized for its historically significant place in LGBTQ history.

Anthony Lopez and Manuel Ouijano, saw the need for this safe gay Latino space and sold their house to buy the bar that would fill that void by creating a reputable safe space for gay Latino men to go and not have to worry about facing the discrimination that many gay men of color had encountered in the white gay bars in the Castro, let alone the discrimination within their own ethnic community.  At Esta Noche, gay Latino men were no longer harassed, called racial slurs, and forced to show several forms of identification just to enter. They did not have to worry about their ethnic community being unaccepting of their sexuality. They had their own protected space.

Although Esta Noche was well known for its variety of vibrant entertainment, it was not just the lively drag shows or comedy bodega nights that made Esta Noche and important part of the community. It was also a space where LGBTQ people could gather, organize and host fundraisers for health clinics, people with AIDS, and other lower income groups. It was a place that took great pride in caring for its Latino community, and celebrated the culture of the people in the surrounding Latino neighborhoods. As a result of these contributions to the community, in 2006, Esta Noche was nominated as one of the organizations to be considered for the San Francisco Pride Marshals, an honor presented to individuals or organizations within the LGBTQ community who have attempted to create change and usually are local heroes who have fought for LGBTQ rights over the years.

When a spike in property taxes threatened the bar’s future, the LGBTQ community launched several efforts to try and raise funds.  Despite efforts of the Queens of San Francisco Drag Queens, Heklina and Anna Conda, to hold a show dedicated to raising funds at the door and donating all of the proceeds to keep the bar afloat, as well as the creation of a crowd funding website, the money needed to stay open could not be raised in time, and the bar was sold. Esta Noche has since been renovated and turned into a club that a reporter for the SF Weekly called “another swanky cocktail bar geared toward 20-somethings with disposable income.” A much different venue than the drag bar that catered to gay Latinos.

Sadly, this is yet another victim of the gentrification that is happening in the Mission District in San Francisco and across the US, and the entire LGBTQ community as well. In researching this site, I have encountered many different personal accounts of LGBTQ individuals experiencing the loss of their important spaces, and sharing their own sadness at the fact that this is becoming normalized. These are more than just places to socialize. They are places to become socialized, to feel free to be who you are, and to feel safe doing it. The most common issue that is discussed is commemorating these spaces so that they do not lose their importance in LGBTQ history because they played such an impactful role.

The closing of Esta Noche is a perfect example of how gentrification effects not only the LGBTQ community, but also its history. The vanishing of queer spaces in the Mission district is troublesome, as it will arguably lead to a younger LGBTQ generation that is not in touch with its own history. Recognizing queer spaces is important to commemorate queer history as well as to prevent collective memory loss. Spaces like Esta Noche need to be remembered and celebrated for their contribution to the gay and Latino communities. The research that I have done supports that there is a need to preserve these spaces in the collective history of the LGBTQ community in an effort to not forget the progress and the hardships that have been encountered in the past. Discrimination, and more currently, gentrification have made LGBTQ individuals feel that there was not a space for them in this country. By gathering a well-documented history of important LGBTQ spaces like Esta Noche and preserving the integrity of such spaces through commemoration, we can avoid this collective memory loss. This is why Esta Noche should be included as a national Historic Landmark.

 

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Pogash, Carol. “Gentrification Spreads an Upheaval in San Francisco’s Mission District.” The New York Times. May 22, 2015. Accessed April 30, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/23/us/high-rents-elbow-latinos-from-san-franciscos-mission-district.html?_r=0.

 

Poirier, Paris, and Kanopy (Firm). 2016. Last Call at Maud’s. San Francisco, California, USA: Ka Streaming. http://[institution].kanopystreaming.com/node/133815.

 

Ramos, Iván A. “The Dirt That Haunts: Looking at Esta Noche.” Studies In Gender & Sexuality 16, no. 2 (April 2015): 135-136. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 30, 2017).

 

Roque Ramirez, Horacio N. 2003. “”That’s My Place!”: Negotiating Racial, Sexual, and Gender Politics in San Francisco’s Gay Latino Alliance, 1975-1983.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 12 (2): 224-258.

 

Ryzik, Melena. “Breaking News, World News & Multimedia.” The New York Times. June 20, 2014. Accessed February 27, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/.

 

 

 

Szymanski, Zak. “The Bay Area Reporter Online | Time to vote for SF Pride marshals.” Bay Area Reporter. March 2, 2006. Accessed May 08, 2017. http://www.ebar.com/news/article.php?sec=news&article=620.

 

Schulman, Sarah. 2012. The Gentrification of the Mind : Witness to a Lost Imagination.    Berkeley: University of California Press. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=816157.

 

Thrasher, Steven W. “LGBT people of color refuse to be erased after Orlando: ‘We have to elbow in'” The Guardian. June 18, 2016. Accessed May 07, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/18/orlando-latino-lgbt-media-whitewash.

 

[1] Roque Ramirez, Horacio N. 2003. “”That’s My Place!”: Negotiating Racial, Sexual, and Gender Politics in San Francisco’s Gay Latino Alliance, 1975-1983.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 12 (2): 224-258.

[2] Hua, Vanessa. “Mission mainstay.” SFGate. November 12, 1999. Accessed May 01, 2017. http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Mission-mainstay-3198889.php

[3] Hapsis, Emmanuel. “KQED Public Media for Northern CA.” KQED Public Media. February 27, 2014. Accessed February 27, 2017. http://www.kqed.org/.

[4] “Esta Noche Back, But Just for Tonight.” MissionLocal. October 24, 2014. Accessed May 08, 2017. https://missionlocal.org/2014/10/esta-noche-back-but-just-for-tonight/.

[5] Cramer, Laura Jaye. “Drag Queens Say Farewell to Mission Institution Esta Noche.” SF Weekly. January 15, 2017. Accessed May 08, 2017. http://archives.sfweekly.com/exhibitionist/2014/03/18/drag-queens-say-farewell-to-mission-institution-esta-noche.

[6] Ramos, Iván A. “The Dirt That Haunts: Looking at Esta Noche.” Studies In Gender & Sexuality. 16, 2 (April 2015): 135-136. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 30, 2017).

[7] Pogash, Carol. “Gentrification Spreads an Upheaval in San Francisco’s Mission District.” The New York Times. May 22, 2015. Accessed April 30, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/23/us/high-rents-elbow-latinos-from-san-franciscos-mission-district.html?_r=0

[8] Thrasher, Steven W. “LGBT People of Color Refuse to be Erased after Orlando: ‘We have to elbow in'” The Guardian. June 18, 2016. Accessed May 07, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/18/orlando-latino-lgbt-media-whitewash.

[9] About.” Bond Bar. Accessed May 09, 2017. http://www.bondbarsf.com/about/

[10] Roque Ramirez, Horacio N. 2003. “”That’s My Place!”: Negotiating Racial, Sexual, and Gender Politics in San Francisco’s Gay Latino Alliance, 1975-1983.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 12 (2): 224-258.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Szymanski, Zak. “Time to vote for SF Pride marshals.” Bay Area Reporter. March 2, 2006. Accessed May 08, 2017. http://www.ebar.com/news/article.php?sec=news&article=620

[13] Hirsch, Daniel. “Esta Noche Back, But Just for Tonight.” MissionLocal. October 24, 2014. Accessed May 10, 2017. https://missionlocal.org/2014/10/esta-noche-back-but-just-for-tonight/

[14] Ibid.

[15] Marsiglia, Flavio. 1998. “Homosexuality and Latinos/as.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services 8 (3): 113-125.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Contreras, D. Unrequited Love and Gay Latino Culture: What Have You Done to My Heart? New York, US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 30 April 2017.

[18] Marsiglia. “Homosexuality and Latinos/as.” 113-125.

[19] Engardio, Joel P. “You Can’t Be Gay — You’re Latino.” SF Weekly. May 09, 2017. Accessed May 09, 2017. http://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/you-cant-be-gay-youre-latino/Content?oid=2136378

[20] Engardio, Joel P. “You Can’t Be Gay — You’re Latino.” SF Weekly. May 09, 2017. Accessed May 09, 2017. http://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/you-cant-be-gay-youre-latino/Content?oid=2136378.

[21] Flynn, Paul, and Alexis Petridis. “‘There is a Pulse around every corner’: why gay clubs matter.” The Guardian. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 10, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/13/pulse-gay-clubs-matter-transformed-lives-orlando-shooting.

[22] Engardio, Joel P. “You Can’t Be Gay — You’re Latino.” SF Weekly. May 09, 2017. Accessed May 09, 2017. http://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/you-cant-be-gay-youre-latino/Content?oid=2136378.

[23] D’Addario, Daniel. 2016. “The Gay Bar As Safe Space Has Been Shattered.” Time. 187, no. 24: 38. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 30, 2017).

[24] Mattson, Greggor. 2015. “Style and the Value of Gay Nightlife: Homonormative Placemaking in San Francisco.” Urban Studies 52 (16): 3144-3159.

[25] Flynn, Paul, and Alexis Petridis. “‘There is a Pulse around every corner’: why gay clubs matter.” The Guardian. June 13, 2016. Accessed April 01, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/13/pulse-gay-clubs-matter-transformed-lives-orlando-shooting

[26] Ibid.

[27] Burke, Tanner. “From concept to market with crowdfunding.” Indiegogo. May 2013. Accessed February 27, 2017. https://www.indiegogo.com/.

[28] Hapsis, Emmanuel. “KQED Public Media for Northern CA.” KQED Public Media. February 27, 2014. Accessed February 27, 2017. http://www.kqed.org/

[29] Ibid.

[30] Mirabal, Nancy Raquel. 2009. “Geographies of Displacement: Latina/os, Oral History, and the Politics of Gentrification in San Francisco’s Mission District.” The Public Historian 31 (2): 7-31.

[31] Hirsch, Daniel . “R-Rated and Ephemeral: Spinning LGBT History.” MissionLocal. July 18, 2014. Accessed February 27, 2017. http://missionlocal.org/2014/07/r-rated-and-ephemeral-spinning-lgbt-history/.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Boyd, Nan. 2011. “San Francisco’s Castro district: from gay liberation to tourist destination.” Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. 9 (3): 237-248.

 

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