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Original text: He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points. So, a teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile. The value-added scores also fluctuate between years. A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

The “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.  A teacher who has ranked in the 43rd percentile might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile.  The values also fluctuate between years.  A teacher who gets a particular ranking in one year is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

He found that teachers’ ranking for New York City teachers was plus or minus 28 points.  For example, a teacher that was placed in the 43rd percentile could actually be placed as low as the 15th percentile and as high as the 71st percentile.  These values are not consistent from year to year, so a teacher who gets a certain ranking in one year will probably get a different ranking the next year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

He found that teachers’ ranking for New York City teachers was plus or minus 28 points.  So a teacher that was ranked in the 43rd percentile could be ranked 28 points higher or lower in actuality.  Also the values change from year to year, and it is likely that the teacher will get a different ranking every year.  (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

He found that there was a 28 point margin of error for New York City’s teachers. So any teachers ranking could be 28 points higher or lower than they were actually ranking.  The rankings change annually and it is unlikely that a teacher’s ranking will remain constant.  (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

He found that there was a 28 point margin of error for New York City’s teachers, for example,  “teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile” (Ravitch, 270-271).  The rankings change annually and its unlikely that a teacher’s ranking will remain constant.

Works cited.

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71

## Plagarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

For example if there is a teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one than they are likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

For example if there is a teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one than they are likely to get a different ranking the next year (Ravitch 270-71).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Teachers are rated on a yearly basis so it is not common for a teacher to have the same ranking each year (Ravitch 270-71).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

The value-added scores fluctuate between years. Teachers are rated on a yearly basis so it is not common for a teacher to have the same ranking each year (Ravitch 270-71).

## Plagiarism Exercise

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

So, a teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile. The value-added scores also fluctuate between years.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

There will always be unsteadiness in these rankings, some of which will mirror “real” performance changes. But it is hard to trust any performance rating if the probability of getting the same rating next year is no better than a coin toss.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

No calculation is just right, but the approximations of value-added and other “growth models,” which attempt to separate the “true effect” of an individual teacher through his or her students’ test scores are frighteningly error-prone in any given year. Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, observed the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points (The Death and Life of the Great American School System).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

A teacher’s ranking compared to her students test scores is not always accurate.  The students could have high test scores and still have a subpar teacher.  There is a lot of error in the data that tries to explain that a teachers rankings is in correlation with her students (The Death and Life of the Great American School System).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

A teacher’s ranking compared to her students test scores is not always accurate.  The students could have high test scores and still have a subpar teacher.  There is a lot of error in the data that tries to explain that a teachers rankings is in correlation with her students, “The value-added scores also fluctuate between years. A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes. But it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss,” (The Death and Life of the Great American School System).

## Fionnuala – Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

A teacher who receives a ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the following year. There will always be instability in these results, some might reflect real performance changes.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

A teacher who receives a ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the following year. There will always be instability in these results, some might reflect real performance changes (Ravitch 270-271).

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch explains that to measure a teachers professional growth from year to year is no perfect science. I believe the problem is defining a measurable variable to establish if professional growth has taken place.  She further criticizes the growth measurement system that utilizes student test scores to determine a teachers growth. She cites a New York Times economist who explains that there are large margins of errors in this type of assessment of teachers professional growth (Ravitch 270-271).

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch explains that to measure a teachers professional growth from year to year is no perfect science. I believe the problem is defining a measurable variable to establish if professional growth has taken place.  She further criticizes the growth measurement system that utilizes student test scores to determine a teachers growth. She cites New York Times economist Sean Corcoran, who explains that there are large margins of errors in this type of assessment of teachers professional growth. Corcoran says, “found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.” (Corcoran qtd in Ravitch 270-271). Ravitch continues stating, “a teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile” (Ravitch 270-271). Ravitch then compares the accuracy of educator ratings to the consistency of a coin toss. (Ravitch 270-271).

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

An instructor can receive a certain ranking one year and it can change the next. There is an inconsistency in the rankings because sometimes it will show, “real” changes.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

An instructor can receive a certain ranking one year and it can change the next. There is an inconsistency in the rankings because sometimes it will show, “real” changes. (Ravitch, 270).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

The method that determines a teachers rank is unreliable because of several factors that include actual change in teacher performance and the startling 28 point margin of error. Thus making  it difficult to trust the results (Ravtich, 270)

The method in which teachers’ influence on a particular student’s test score is judged is an inconsistent one. According to Sean Corcoran, an economist at NYU, “the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points” (Ravitch, 270). Thus it is difficult to accurately determine actual teacher influence on student, improved teacher performance, or margin of error. This results in a different teacher ranking each year.

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes. But it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

Instability in these rankings will always exist, some of which demonstrate “real” performance changes. It’s difficult to trust any performance rating if the chances of getting the same rating next year are the same as a coin toss.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Economist at New York University, Sean Corcoran studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston.He concluded that the average margin of error of a NYC teacher was plus or minus 28 points (Ravitch 270).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

As asserted by Diana Ravitch, it is hard to differentiate between a the rankings of public school teachers because there is such a large margin of error in the calculations (Ravitch 270). This margin of error makes it difficult to assess a teachers real performance.

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Assessing public school teachers is hard to do with today’s assessment tests. As Diana Ravitch writes “it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss” (Ravitch 270).

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

An economist who studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points. In other words, a teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

Sean Corcoran was an economist at New York University who studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found the average margin of error for a New York City teacher in these evaluation systems was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Sean Corcoran was an economist at New York University who studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found the average margin of error for a New York City teacher in these evaluation systems was plus or minus 28 points (Ravitch 270).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Proving the imperfection of the teacher evaluation system, one economist found that the margin of error in the evaluation system for New York was plus or minus 28 points. This meant that, even if a teacher was ranked in the 43rd percentile, he or she could actually be between the ranks of the 15th and 71st percentile (Ravitch 270).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Because of the large margin of error in the teacher evaluation systems, and the fluctuation of scores, the author says, “it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss” (Ravitch 271). Clearly, the current system is not an accurate one.

Work Cited

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System.New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

## Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes. But it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

A teacher can get a different ranking score each year because of instability in rankings, which reflect real performance changes. It is difficult to believe performance ratings because they are a toss up.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Stability in rankings is inconsistent because they reflect “real” performance, so they are difficult to trust because a teacher’s ranking can change year-to-year. (Ravitch 270-271)

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

In regards to teacher evaluation, Sean Corcoran has found that there is a large fluctuation in how a teacher will be ranked year-to-year. Due to rankings being based off of performance changes that are considered, as Ravitch says “real,” they are inconsistent and therefore cannot be fully trusted. (Ravitch 270-271)

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

After studying how teachers are evaluated in both New York City and Houston, Sean Corcoran discovered that “the ‘margin of error’ of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points” (Ravitch 270-271). This shows the significant difficulty New York City faces in ranking teachers since the margin of error is so large.

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

The value-added scores also fluctuate between years. A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

Between years, there are fluctuations in value-added scores. A teacher’s ranking is likely to change from one year to the next.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

As Ravitch says, value added rankings will always be unstable. Some changes reflect real changes in performance, but a performance ranking is hard to trust if the chances of getting the same score from one year to the next are the same as the flip of a coin (Ravitch p.271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch explains that value added rankings are unreliable. Some of the changes that they measure reflect actual changes in performance. However, the fact that results change so significantly from year to year makes this type of assessment hard to trust (Ravitch p.271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch explains that value added rankings are unreliable. Some of the changes that they measure reflect actual changes in performance. However, the rankings are unreliable due to the fact that the odds of getting the same results from one year to the next “are no better than a coin toss”(Ravitch p.271).

Works Cited

Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing

and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York: Basic, 2010. Print.

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

An economist at New York University, Sean Corcoran, studied the teacher evaluation systems in Houston and New York City. He found that a New York City teacher had an average “margin of error” of plus or minus 28 points.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Teacher evaluations systems were studied in Houston and New York City by Sean Corcoran who is an economist at New York University. Sean Corcoran found that the average “margin of error” for a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Sean Corcoran conducted studies in New York City and Houston in regards to their teacher evaluation systems. This economist from New York University found that the average “margin of error” for the teachers specifically in New York City was plus or minus 28 points (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

The economist, Sean Corcoran, from New York University conducted research on teacher evaluation systems. He conducted his studies in both New York City and Houston and found that within New York City “the average ‘margin of error’ of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points” (Ravitch, 270-271).

## Plagiarism Post

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Example 1: Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 2: Sean Corcoran, who is an economist at New York University, studied systems that evaluate teachers in New York City and Houston. In New York City, he found that the average “margin of error” of a teacher was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 3:Sean Corcoran, who is an economist at New York University, has studied the teacher evaluation systems of New York City and Houston. He found that the “margin of error” of a teacher was plus or minus 28 points in New York City (Ravitch 270-271).

Example 4: An economist from New York University, Sean Corcoran, found that the error of teacher evaluation systems in New York City was about 28 points (Ravitch 270-271).

Example 5: An economist from New York University, Sean Corcoran, found that the error of teacher evaluation systems in New York City was about 28 points. To defend this claim Ravitch stated, “there will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes” (Ravitch pp. 270-271).

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

## Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

• There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes. But it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

• Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, studied New York City and Houston’s teacher evaluation systems. His findings show that a New York City teacher’s average “margin of error” was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

• Between years, the value-added scores fluctuate. It is likely that a teacher with a particular ranking one year will get a different ranking the next year (Ravitch, 270-71).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

• Although some rankings manifest true performance changes, they are characterized as unstable (Ravitch, 270-71).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

• Attempting to separate a teachers impact through the test scores their students produce, estimates of value-added and other “growth models” “are alarmingly error-prone (Ravitch, 270-71).”

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71.

## Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

• A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

• A teacher who gets a ranking of an 8 in year one is likely to get a different ranking in year two.  The instability in these rankings often reflect “real” performance changes.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

• The instability in these rankings, some of which reflect “real” performance changes, will always be present often times because a teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking in year two (Ravitch, 270-71).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

• The ranking process of teachers is generally not consistent and when a teacher receives a ranking, it does not mean that he/she will receive the same ranking the following year.  Although some of these ranking inconsistencies are simply that, some may be showing actual performance differences (Ravitch, 270-71).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

• The ranking process of teachers is generally not consistent and when a teacher receives a ranking, it does not mean that he/she will receive the same ranking the following year.  There will always be ranking inconsistencies in the process, however some of them “will reflect “real” performance changes” (Ravitch, 270-71).

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

~ He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

~The value-added scores also change between years. A teacher who receives a specific ranking one year is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

~There will always be a degree of uncertainty in these rankings, some of which will reveal “real” performance changes (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

~Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, generated a study where he investigated the teacher evaluation systems in New York and Houston. His research led him to find that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points (Ravitch, 270-271)

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

~Based off Corcoran’s findings on teacher evaluations, Ravitch draws the conclusion that a teacher whose ranked in the 43rd percentile might have peers that rank“…anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile” (Ravitch, 270-271).

## Avoiding Plagiarism- Brigit Rioual

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year. There will always be instability in these rankings, some of which will reflect “real” performance changes.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

But it is hard to trust any performance rating if the chances of getting the similar rating next year are no better than tossing a coin.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

A teacher that who gets a certain ranking in one year is likely to get a different ranking the following year (Ravitch, 270-1).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

In the following year, a teacher could get a different ranking than the ranking they received the year before (Ravitch, 270-1).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

In the following year, a teacher could get a different ranking than the ranking they received the year before. It is hard to rely on these rankings because only some “will reflect “real” performance changes” (Ravitch, 270-1).

## Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

No measure is perfect, but the estimates of value-added and other “growth models,” which attempt to isolate the “true effect” of an individual teacher through his or her students’ test scores, are alarmingly error-prone in any given year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

There is no measure that is faultless, but approximations of value-added and other models, which try to separate how the individual teacher is affected through the tests the students take, have faults during any year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

According to Diane Ravitch, there is no measure that is faultless, but approximations of value-added and other models, which try to separate how the individual teacher is affected through the tests the students take, have faults during any year (Ravitch, 270).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

According to Diane Ravitch, it is not right to say a teacher is a good one or not by looking at the grades his/her students get on exams (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

According to Diane Ravitch, it is not right to say a teacher is a good one or not by looking at the grades his/her students get on exams.  Ravitch describes this as being “alarmingly error prone”(Ravitch, 270-271).

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

No measure is perfect, but the estimates of value-added and other “growth models,” which attempt to isolate the “true effect” of an individual teacher through his or her students’ test scores, are alarmingly error-prone in any given year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

There won’t always be stability in these rankings, but some of these will reflect changes in real performance.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

It’s difficult to have faith in performance evaluations if the chance of getting the same rating the next year is about as good as the odds when you flip a coin (Ravitch 271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

A teacher who is ranked at one level is not very likely to be ranked in the same level after the next evaluation (Ravitch 271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

No measure is perfect, and value-added assessments have significant flaws as an evaluating tool because there is inherent “…instability in these rankings…” (Ravitch 271).

## Avoiding Plagiarism

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Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

It seems that no measure is perfect, but the estimates of value-added and other “growth models,” which attempt to isolate the “true effect” of an individual teacher through his or her students’ test scores, are alarmingly error-prone in any given year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

Evaluating teacher effectiveness, by estimating value-added or other growth models based on students test scores, is not reliable. Teacher evaluation studies in two major US cities have shown large margins of error in percentile ranking (up to 28 points plus or minus). These scores change year to year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Evaluating teacher effectiveness, by estimating value-added or other growth models based on students test scores, is not reliable. Teacher evaluation studies in two major US cities have shown large margins of error in percentile ranking (up to 28 points plus or minus). These scores change year to year (Ravitch 270-71).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch says that evaluating teacher effectiveness, by estimating value-added or other growth models based on students test scores, is not reliable. Teacher evaluation studies in two major US cities have shown large margins of error in percentile ranking (up to 28 points plus or minus). These scores change year to year (Ravitch 270-71).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch says that evaluating teacher effectiveness, by estimating value-added or other growth models based on students test scores, is not reliable. “Sean Corcoran, an economist at New York University, studied the teacher evaluation systems in New York City and Houston. He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points.” These scores change year to year (Ravitch 270-71).

Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York:             Basic Books, 2011.

## Plagiarism exercise

Posted on

Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

Truly, no measure is perfect.  But the estimates of value-added and other “growth models,” which attempt to isolate the “true effect” of an individual teacher through his or her students’ test scores, are alarmingly error-prone in any given year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

Sean Corcoran, who is an economist at New York University, has studied the teacher evaluation systems in Houston and New York City. His studies found that the average “margin of error” of a teacher in New York City was plus or minus 28 whole points.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

Therefore, a teacher who has ranked at the 43rd percentile in comparison to his or her peers may really be anywhere between the 15th and 71st percentile (Ravitch 270-271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

Due to fluctuation for value-added scores, teachers will likely receive different scores over several years.  One year he or she may have a good ranking, and the next he or she may have a bad ranking (Ravitch 270-271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

Ravitch points out that the rankings will never be stable.  Some of the value-added assesments may show accurate performance changes, but many will not.  Ravitch says, “it is difficult to trust any performance rating if the odds of getting the same rating next year are no better than a coin toss,” (Ravitch 270-271).