History of the Diner



  1. Pillsbury, Richard. 1990. From Boarding House To Bistro. Unwin Hyman: Boston.
  2. Bell, David, and Gill Valentine. 2013. Consuming Geographies. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.
  3. “Woolworth’s Lunch Counter – Separate Is Not Equal”. 2018. Americanhistory.Si.Edu. http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/6-legacy/freedom-struggle-2.html.
  4. Hurley, Andrew. 2002. Diners, Bowling Alleys, And Trailer Parks. New York: BasicBooks.
  5. Gutman, Richard. 2000. American Diner Then And Now. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  6. Baeder, John. 1979. John Baeder. Wayne, N.J.: William Paterson College of New Jersey.
  7. “The Evolution Of The American Diner: T. H. Buckley- Come Get Your American Dream”. 2018. The Evolution Of The American Diner. http://scalar.usc.edu/works/the-evolution-of-the-american-diner/come-get-your-american-dream.
  8. Offitzer, Karen (2002). Diners. New York, NY: New Line Books. p. 46. ISBN 1-57717-052-0.
  9. Richard J.S. Gutman, The Worcester Lunch Car Company (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2004), 9.
  10. http://photobucket.com/gallery/user/dinerman3/media/bWVkaWFJZDozMDc2NTYxNQ==/?ref=
  11. “Mickey’s Diner | Mnopedia”. 2018. Mnopedia.Org. http://www.mnopedia.org/structure/mickeys-diner.
  12. https://npgallery.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/83000936.pdf
  13. Fitzgerald, John. 2013. “30 Years Ago, Mickey’s Diner Awarded Historic Status”. Minnesota Post, , 2013. https://www.minnpost.com/minnesota-history/2013/03/30-years-ago-mickeys-diner-awarded-historic-status.
  14. Herek, Stephen. 1992. The Mighty Ducks. Film. United States: Buena Vista Pictures.
  15. JLeveant, Brian. 1996. Jingle All The Way. Film. United States: 1492 Pictures.
  16. “Diners, Drive-Ins And Dives”. 2018. Food Network. https://www.foodnetwork.com/shows/diners-drive-ins-and-dives.
  17. https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/30/38/b6/0c96065e47fc4c/US497598.pdf
  18. “American Diner Museum – History And Culture Of The American Diner”. 2018. Americandinermuseum.Org. http://www.americandinermuseum.org/history.php.
  19. “Nighthawks | The Art Institute Of Chicago”. 2018. Artic.Edu. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/111628.
  20. Zemeckis, Robert. 1985. Back To The Future. Film. United States: Universal Pictures.
  21. “About Us – Denny’s”. 2018. Denny’s. https://web.archive.org/web/20150905235424/https://www.dennys.com/company/about/.
  22. Butko, Brian, Kevin Joseph Patrick, and Kyle R Weaver. 2011. Diners Of Pennsylvania. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.


Statement for Timeline

I have always had a fascination with diners, I loved the sleek look and breakfast food has been my favorite since I was a child. I never knew the greater history of diners, I just always saw them on TV and assumed they were just like every other average restaurant. Once I started to do research on it, I soon found out I was very wrong. I was surprised to find that diners did not originate in the south as places for great breakfast food, but rather originated in New England as a place for a quick meal in the night. The timeline I decided to create followed the history of diners with a focus on Mickey’s Diner in St. Paul, Minnesota. I chose to track Mickey’s Diner history because it is the most famous diner in the United States. It is often visited by celebrities and has been featured on many films, TV shows, and the food network. Mickeys has been open 24/7 365 days a year since it opened in 1939, which is very unique compared to the number of diners I considered researching. Although I was not able to cover a direct history of Mickey’s Dining car and it’s process, I was able to put together a story of how diners have changed and shifted over time.

One of the main reasons I chose to cover a general history of diners was because of the lack of information on Mickey’s diner. Though this was a unique diner being one of the first in the Midwestern United States, there was very little information about the two men who decided to open Mickey’s which I found to be disappointing. Not being discouraged, I dove into the greater history of diners as eating places opposed to a timeline of two people. What I discovered was that the story of how diners were created was so rich, it was genuinely a service to America’s common man. So I took the approach that Mickey’s was the “common man” of American Diners that shares a history with other diners that operate today or recently went out of business. It started off as Walter Scott creating a place for late night workers to get a bite to eat and snowballed into a mass production of dining cars in the early 1900s. I thought this undercover story was really groundbreaking, Mickey’s Diner was one of thousands of dining cars produced by Jerry O’Mahony Diner Company. So I decided to take it further and further back to when eating at a space outside of a home became a “thing.”

I thought in telling the story like this it made the timeline engage more with the reader. No longer were they reading the history of some random diner located in St. Paul, Minnesota, they were reading the history of how diners changed over time and how they became a part of the social society in the United States. Diners have became a concrete part of American culture, they’re on contemporary TV shows, they’ve been the teen hangout spot since the 1970s, it’s where major social movements were started, and they look really cool in pictures. As Americans we all have a stereotype service at diners, and what our experience will be like at one. What I wanted to do was explain that what Americans see today as something so normal, was physically constructed from basically nothing but an idea. Walter Scott changed the use of a space to fit the need of a service (the wagon to the lunch wagon) and T. H. Buckey saw a profitable business and started mass producing dining cars. The idea of diners being diners was socially constructed. Through understanding the history of Mickey’s Diner and a greater history of diners in America, a viewer is able to see how geographic imagination is in sync with a person’s race, class, gender, sexuality, and sense of embodiment and privilege, thus providing a representation of what America is.

To Be or Not To Be; A Timeline Of The Debate Over Confederate Monuments in America

This timeline examines the historical past and present events surrounding Confederate Monuments. On August 11thand 12thof 2017, a rally occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia which would spark a movement that continues to impact the concept of public space and public monuments throughout the United States and even in the international sphere. This rally was in opposition to the city of Charlottesville’s previous decision to remove a statue of Robert E. Lee and rename the Lee Park (where the statue was located) to Emancipation Park. The individuals who were against the removal of the statue were members of the white supremacy and Neo-Nazi [1] movements and felt that removing this statue and others around the nation was disrupting history and paying poor homage to a Civil War ‘hero.’

Monuments carry a deep connection with history and memory. History and memory are not synonymous. This is demonstrated through the Confederate monuments that we see throughout the United States. A majority of the Confederate monuments were built during the Jim Crow Era [4]. This was post-Civil War during Reconstruction when white Southerners specifically struggled to find their new place in society since they no longer held power over black individuals after emancipation. Groups such as the United Daughters of the Confederacy, who hoped to preserve the image of their relatives–husbands, sons, fathers, and grandfathers–who fought under the Confederate flag. Although, this creation of monuments today is seen as an attempt to maintain the white supremacy of the ‘Old South’ when slavery existed and there was a clear social hierarchy. Many believe that for these reasons, the statues should be removed since they do not memorialize people who hold the current values of our nation.

Our current President Donald Trump, took to Twitter to announce his beliefs on the matter surrounding Charlottesville and beyond. He stated “Sad to see the history and culture of our great country being ripped apart with the removal of our beautiful statues and monuments,” as well as “You can’t change history, but you can learn from it. Robert E Lee, Stonewall Jackson – who’s next, Washington, Jefferson? So foolish! Also the beauty that is being taken out of our cities, towns and parks will be greatly missed and never able to be comparably replaced!” [5]. This statement demonstrates that every individual places different values on these spaces and places that we erect in order to honor the past. That the question of whether or not we Confederate heroes and ideals should be celebrated in our culture or not is at the forefront of this debate and also whether these statues and memorials represent an extreme form of veiled racism. There are three ways in which these monuments can be evaluated on whether they are racist or not first, it depends on who the monument represents, second, it depends on what aspect of the individual is being celebrated and finally, the intentions of those who created or sponsored it must come to the foreground [6]. Monuments overall carry a remarkable amount of symbolism and I included a few examples of different types of monuments that do not have to do with the Civil War Era. These examples are Devil’s Tower, which is a natural national monument in Wyoming which is held by the National Park Service and is among many national monuments that are naturally created and recognized. Additionally, I incorporated the Rocky Statue and what it means and represents for the city of Philadelphia, it is a fictional character who has been amplified into this image of the city and one of the largest attractions in Philadelphia.

Monuments are personal in many ways and despite the fact that they commonly rest in public spaces, they are left to the interpretation of the individual. For this reason, the debate over Confederate monuments will continue to boil. Something that I may view as racist and a celebration of a disjointed time in our country’s history, one may see as a removal of Southern heritage and disrespectful towards their memory. As the debate continues it will be interesting to see what happens to these monuments and the spaces that they used to occupy.

Works Cited

[1] Fortin, Jacey. “The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville’s Storm.” The New York Times (2017).

[2] Winberry, John J. “” Lest We Forget”: The Confederate monument and the Southern townscape.” Southeastern Geographer 23, no. 2 (1983): 107-121.

[3] Nora, Pierre. “Between memory and history: Les lieux de mémoire.” Representations (1989): 7-24.

[4] Valentino, Nicholas A., and David O. Sears. “Old times there are not forgotten: Race and partisan realignment in the contemporary South.” American Journal of Political Science49, no. 3 (2005): 672-688.

[5] Julia Zorthian. “President Trump Says It’s ‘Sad’ to See U.S. Culture ‘Ripped Apart’ by Removing Confederate Statues.” Time. (August 17, 2017)

[6] Demetriou, Dan, and Ajume Wingo. “The Ethics of Racist Monuments.” (2018).

[7] Hamilton, Annette. “Monuments and memory.” Continuum 3, no. 1 (1990): 101-114.

[8]Burling, Elizabeth J. “Policy Strategies for Monuments and Memorials.” (2005).

[9] Shelton, Hal T. General Richard Montgomery and the American Revolution: From Redcoat to Rebel. Vol. 29. NYU Press, 1994.

[10] Channing, Steven A. Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina. No. 730. WW Norton & Company, 1974.

[11] Architect of the Capital. National Statuary Hall Collection. https://www.aoc.gov/the-national-statuary-hall-collection

[12] Lazarus, Emma, and Valenti Angelo. The new colossus. Project Gutenberg, 1949.

[13] Cox, Karen Lynne. “Women, the Lost Cause, and the New South: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the transmission of Confederate culture, 1894-1919.” (1997).

[14] Cross, Raymond, and Elizabeth Brenneman. “Devils Tower at the Crossroads: The National Park Service and the Preservation of Native American Cultural Resources in the 21st Century.” Pub. Land & Resources L. Rev. 18 (1997): 5.

[15] Vanderslice, John Mitchell. Gettysburg: A History of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association, with an Account of the Battle. Memorial association, 1897.

[16] Sandage, Scott A. “A marble house divided: The Lincoln Memorial, the civil rights movement, and the politics of memory, 1939-1963.” The Journal of American History 80, no. 1 (1993): 135-167.

[17] Adam Raymond. A Running List of Confederate Monuments Removed Across the Country. New York Magazine (August 2017) http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2017/08/running-list-of-confederate-monuments-that-have-been-removed.html

[18] Chris Kahn. A majority of Americans want to preserve Confederate monuments: Reuters/Ipsos poll. Reuters (August 21, 2017)https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-protests-poll/a-majority-of-americans-want-to-preserve-confederate-monuments-reuters-ipsos-poll-idUSKCN1B12EG

[19] Matthew Watkins. UT-Austin removes Confederate statues in the middle of the night.Texas Tribune (August 20, 2017).https://www.texastribune.org/2017/08/20/ut-austin-removing-confederate-statues-middle-night/

[20] Frank Heinz. Six Flags Over Texas Removes Confederate, Other Historic Flags From Park. NBC Dallas-Fort Worth (August 18, 2017) https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/Six-Flags-Over-Texas-Removes-Confederate-Flags-From-Park-441026123.html

Colonial Williamsburg Timeline


Sources Cited:

“John D. Rockefeller Jr. and the Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg.” John D. Rockefeller Jr. and the Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter00_01/vision.cfm.

“About W&M: Cool Facts.” William and Mary, www.wm.edu/about/history/coolfacts/index.php.

“About W&M: Wren Building.” William and Mary, www.wm.edu/about/history/historiccampus/wrenbuilding/.

“Capitol of Colonial Williamsburg.” Capitol of Colonial Williamsburg : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, www.history.org/almanack/places/hb/hbcap.cfm.

“The Restoration of Williamsburg.” The Restoration of Williamsburg : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume4/july06/restoration.cfm.

“News Summary; WEDNESDAY, JUNE 1, 1983.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 June 1983, www.nytimes.com/1983/06/01/nyregion/news-summary-wednesday-june-1-1983.html.

Lac, J. Freedom du. “Slavery Is a Tough Role, Hard Sell at Colonial Williamsburg.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 8 Mar. 2013, www.washingtonpost.com/local/slavery-is-a-tough-role-hard-sell-at-colonial-williamsburg/2013/03/08/d78fa88a-8664-11e2-a80b-3edc779b676f_story.html?utm_term=.e24dca1e1014.

“Colonial Character.” NPR, NPR, 26 June 1999, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1052076.

Staff, NPR. “Actors, Interpreters Bring US Colonial Past Alive.” NPR, NPR, 13 June 2011, www.npr.org/2011/06/13/137152144/actors-interpreters-bring-us-colonial-past-alive.


The Las Vegas Strip: An American Identity


Le Corbusier, Pseud, and C. Jeanneret-Gris. The City of To-morrow and Its Planning. 1929. Web.

Twitchell, James B. “Viva Las Vegas!: A Strip of Luxury.” Living It Up: Our Love Affair with Luxury, Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 215–238. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/twit12496.11.

Denton, Sally., and Roger Morris. The Money and the Power : The Making of Las Vegas and Its Hold on America, 1947-2000. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print.

“LAS VEGAS.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Sep 06 1981, p. 2. Web. 8 Apr. 2018 .

BETSKY, AARON. “FUTURE WORLD.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Dec 12 1993, p. 6. Web. 8 Apr. 2018 .

Malamud, Margaret. “As the Romans Did? Theming Ancient Rome in Contemporary Las Vegas.” Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics, vol. 6, no. 2, 1998, pp. 11–39. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20140439.

Vinegar, Aron., and Michael J. Golec. Relearning from Las Vegas. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 2009. Web.

WHITELEY, NIGEL. “Learning from Las Vegas . . . and Los Angeles and Reyner Banham.” Relearning from Las Vegas, edited by Aron Vinegar and Michael J. Golec, NED – New edition ed., University of Minnesota Press, MINNEAPOLIS; LONDON, 2009, pp. 195–210. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttpvs.13.

VINEGAR, ARON. “The Melodrama of Expression and Inexpression in the Duck and Decorated Shed.” Relearning from Las Vegas, edited by Aron Vinegar and Michael J. Golec, NED – New edition ed., University of Minnesota Press, MINNEAPOLIS; LONDON, 2009, pp. 163–194. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttpvs.12.

SMITH, KATHERINE. “Mobilizing Visions: Representing the American Landscape.” Relearning from Las Vegas, edited by Aron Vinegar and Michael J. Golec, NED – New edition ed., University of Minnesota Press, MINNEAPOLIS; LONDON, 2009, pp. 97–128. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttpvs.9.

Heindl, Gabu. “Bin City, Las Vegas.” Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), vol. 59, no. 2, 2005, pp. 5–12. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40480606.

By, VERNE G. “A New, Dazzling Las Vegas Downtown.” New York Times (1923-Current file), Jan 28 1996, p. 1. Web. 8 Apr. 2018 .

BY, TRIP G. “FROM VICE TO NICE.” New York Times (1923-Current file), Dec 01 1991, p. 7. Web. 8 Apr. 2018 .

Sanders, James. “Robert Venturi Denise Scott Brown.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Aug 18 1991, p. 1. Web. 8 Apr. 2018 .

Schwartz, D. G. (2010). “The Burger King Revolution: How Las Vegas bounced back, 1983-1989.” Gaming Law Review and Economics: Regulation, Compliance, and Policy, 14(4), 261-273.

Borden, Iain., and Jane Rendell. Intersections : Architectural Histories and Critical Theories. London ; New York: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Renek, Morris. Las Vegas Strip. 1st ed. New York: Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1975. Print.

Moehring, Eugene P. Resort City in the Sunbelt : Las Vegas, 1930-2000. 2nd ed. Reno: U of Nevada, 2000. Print. Wilbur S. Shepperson Ser. in History and Humanities.

Rubino, Stephen. “11 Things You Didn’t Know About MGM Grand.” Thrillist. Thrillist, 02 Mar. 2016. Web. 09 Apr. 2018.

Brownlee, Venturi, Scott Brown, Brownlee, David Bruce, Venturi, Robert, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Heinz Architectural Center. Out of the Ordinary : Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Associates : Architecture, Urbanism, Design. Philadelphia, Pa.: Philadelphia Museum of Art in Association with Yale UP, 2001. Print.

Venturi, Scott Brown, Izenour, and Izenour, Steven. Learning from Las Vegas. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1972. Print.




Architecture is a form of communication, which qualifies human behavior through the built environment (Brownlee, Delong, Hiesinger, 37). Suburbanization introduced the strip mall as a physical barrier dividing race, gender, and class. The Las Vegas Strip propels this division using neon lights, slot machines, and set design to create the ultimate strip mall. With millions of visitors each year the Strip’s enduring popularity offers incredible insight into the effects of suburbanization on American culture. I first developed an interest in the Las Vegas Strip during a Modern Architecture course at Trinity College. The course introduced the Strip as a culmination of decades of modernism in America. Its scholarly analysis took shape as the nation moved into the post-modern era. Entirely a post-war production, the Strip offered an extreme example of suburbanization. Suburbanization homogenized the American landscape using commercial retail in the form of strip malls to segregate landscapes. Las Vegas’s extreme reproduction of this built environment along Highway 91 is a cautionary tale of dehumanization through suburbanization along all American highways.

I learned about the Strip along a timeline beginning with Le Corbusier and ending with Robert Venturi. This portrayal was affective in explaining the Strip as a culmination of architecture’s reflection of American culture during the 20thcentury. Le Corbusier envisioned a City of Tomorrow, which looked almost identical to modern strip malls, including the Las Vegas Strip. This is not a coincidence, as American architects used Corbusier’s designs to build the nation’s post-war landscape. Corbusier emphasized straight lines, skyscrapers, and automobile usage in a “village” that residents would never have to leave for any practical reason. Corbusier’s treatise on the modern city persuaded readers by founding his theories in Ancient Roman design, which also emphasized grid cities. He sold his ideas as the carrying out of Ancient Roman tradition. This theme is prevalent along the Strip with casinos including Caesar’s Palace and the Forum Shops. Due to this similarity I chose to include facts that represented this comfort in antiquity.

Next, I documented major building projects occurring between 1970 and 1990 and moved on to Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s Learning From Las Vegas. This publication complimented Le Corbusier’s as a reflection of the ramifications of his modern city. Further, it presented the quite pitiful Las Vegas Strip landscape as worthy of scholarly inquiry. Venturi and Scott Brown culminate their treatise by foreshadowing the power of “Electronic Expressionism” on the American landscape. I chose to end with this fact because it ties together the three headlining architects and attempts to provoke thought on the current American landscape.

Bellevue’s Legacy: A Timeline

Bellevue is a site with an immense legacy, an almost monumental presence in the history of American medicine. Its story is littered with notable firsts and achievements: the first ambulance service, the first dedicated maternity ward, the first trials of countless influential treatments (Oshinsky). Bellevue’s history is complicated, however, by the experiences of its patients. Its legacy of treating the public, offering care to those marginalized by their illnesses and disabilities, represents a triumph for the ideals of public medicine. But its history also tracks the evolution of medicine, and of hospitals as institutions in America. Bellevue opened as a “pesthouse,” a hospital for the poor and destitute, in 1736. As the oldest public hospital, it has served crisis after crisis, for outbreaks of yellow fever in the nineteenth century to the AIDS crisis at its height (Frusciano & Pettit 89).

But Bellevue has at many points in its history become synonymous with understaffed, underfunded public hospital system. As such, its relationship with the public has been contentious, from fears over its dissection of cadavers to unethical experiments to its association in the 20th century with psychiatric illness and, accordingly, an image as a menacing, foreboding prison for the insane. It has become an imaginary nexus for both the virtues and the pitfalls of the public health system in America. In response, my timeline shuttles between both of these stories, those of the hospital’s achievements, and those of patients’ vexed relationships with the institution. I’ve chosen to include its cultural touchstones, like the 1945 best picture winner “Lost Weekend,” set and filmed at Bellevue, as well as sensational news stories that have contributed to its popular perceptions.

As a building, Bellevue’s design tracks changes in hospital design and in transformations in therapeutic theory. Its relocation from downtown to its current location allowed patients access to fresh air and river views, but also put it out of the minds of lawmakers downtown (Burrows & Wallace 112, Marks & Beatty). Attempts to redevelop the closed psychiatric hospital, now used as a homeless shelter, have brought to public discussion the hospital’s function within the larger social landscape, constituting somewhat of a roundtrip for the institution (Rubinstein). Events like Hurricane Sandy have demonstrated just how crucial a role Bellevue plays in New York’s social landscape (He et. al). My timeline’s use of these events is designed to suggest the institution’s engagement with the city’s politics, culture, and geography. Bellevue operates on different scales, from local politics to international transformations in models of public health. My timeline hopes to draw attention to the ways Bellevue has responded to but also produced medical culture across these scales, adding up to a rich and layered history that must be read not only for its achievements but for the sorts of individual experiences it produced.


Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Carlisle, Robert J. An Account of Bellevue Hospital: With a Catalogue of the Medical and Surgical Staff from 1736 to 1894. Society of the Alumni of Bellevue Hospital, 1893.
Cone, Thomas E. History of American Pediatrics. Little, Bown and Company, 1979.
Dukakis, Kitty, and Larry Tye. Shock. Penguin, 2007.
Fred Mogul. “Bellevue Hospital’s Slow Comeback After Superstorm Sandy.” All Things Considered, NPR, 30 Jan. 2013. EBSCOhost.
Frusciano, Thomas J., and Marilyn H. Pettit. New York University and the City: An Illustrated History. Rutgers University Press, 1997.
Gamble, Molly. “A New Name for NYC Health and Hospitals Corp: 5 Things to Know.” Becker’s Hospital Review, 10 Nov. 2015.
Harris, Mark. “Checkout Time at the Asylum.” New York Magazine, Nov. 2008.
Hartocollis, Anmeona. “Bellevue Marks 275 Years of Taking Care.” New York Times, 15 Dec. 2011.
He, Fangtao Tony, et al. “Temporal and Spatial Patterns in Utilization of Mental Health Services During and After Hurricane Sandy: Emergency Department and Inpatient Hospitalizations in New York City.” Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, vol. 10, no. 03, June 2016, pp. 512–17. CrossRef, doi:10.1017/dmp.2016.89.
Kinetz, Erika. “Where the Wounds Don’t Show.” New York Times, 3 Nov. 2002, pp. 1, 12.
Kirkland, M. B. “Call an Ambulance.” New Yorker, 10 Sep 1938, pp. 83–86.
Marks, Geoffrey, and William K. Beatty. The Story of Medicine in America. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973.
Oshinsky, David. Bellevue: Three Centuries of Medicine and Mayhem at America’s Most Storied Hospital. Anchor, 2016.
Phillips, Gene D. Some like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. 2010.
Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1890.
Rubinstein, Dana. “Bellevue Redevelopment Officially Dead.” The New York Observer, https://web.archive.org/web/20100426141918/http://www.observer.com/2010/real-estate/bellevue-redevelopment-officially-dead.
Senior, Jeffiner. “Review: ‘Bellevue’ Celebrates a Hospital Not Crazy, but Compassionate.” New York Times, 16 Nov. 2016.
Shrout, Anelise H. “Public Health in New York City.” Digital Almshouse Project, 2013, https://www.nyuirish.net/almshouse/public-health-in-new-york-city/.
Siegel, Robert. “Bellevue Hospital Pioneered Care For Presidents And Paupers.” All Things Considered, NPR, 16 Nov. 2016.
Strom, S. “AIDS and Privacy: A Bellevue Dillemma.” New York Times, 28 Jan. 1991, p. 1.
Yanni, Carla. The Architecture of Madness: Insane Asylums in the United States. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.



Gabe’s Timeline

I chose Zuccotti Park as the place for my timeline because it was the site of the Occupy Wall Street movement. However, I presented the park in a way that didn’t confine the space as only the site of this event – upon further research, I discovered the public square was significant for many reasons. First and foremost, the park is emblematic of the sweeping trend of neoliberal policy in modern cities across the globe. Zuccotti Park is a POPS, meaning it is a public space that sits on privately owned land. POPS are prevalent throughout New York and allow the city to provide adequate open and public space to residents without having to deal with the costs of maintenance. This is also a positive tradeoff because private companies are then held responsible for their public footprint and how urbanites perceive the companies influence on the city. Problems begin to arise, however, when questions of who has a right to the space arise. Since the park is public and must be open 24 hours a day, protestors believe they have a right to the space but officials view them as restricting the freedom of others to use the square. It’s a very difficult urban dilemma with no clear solutions, which is why I began my timeline in Antiquity.

By beginning the timeline in ancient Greece, I hope to demonstrate that public squares and the question of who has the right to use them have existed for as long as humans have settled together. The term public square has always been deceiving, because history shows that a segment of the population was consistently excluded and oppressed from the space. In 500 BCE, it was women, slaves, and foreigners who couldn’t access public squares. In 2011, it was anarchists and those that were fed up with the financial establishment that were eventually barred from accessing public space. Further, by beginning in Antiquity and traveling to other parts of the world, its possible to show how public squares have a number of universal uses, as well as public squares that serve very particular functions for a specific city – Boston Common was a pasture for grazing, like many other public spaces at the time, but was simultaneously the site of antislavery protests as well as civil rights demonstrations.

Lastly, at the root of my timeline is my own love of urban public squares. In any city I visit, I am immediately drawn to the wide-open and bustling spaces of public squares. I’ve spent entire days simply sitting on benches, people watching and eves dropping. It’s where the best of city-life is on display at any hour of the day and where a visitor can gain the most profound sense of place. Cities are usually distinguished most by their skylines, but it’s what happens in between those looming skyscrapers, in the urban public squares, that give a city its true character.

Blitz, Matt. “The Oldest City in the United States Turns 450.” Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, 3 Sept. 2015. [1]
Carmona, Matthew, et al. Public Space: The Management Dimension. Routledge, 2008. [2]
“Experiencing the Hybrid City: The Role of Digital Technology in Public Urban Places.” The SAGE Handbook of New Urban Studies, by John A. Hannigan et al., SAGE, 2017, pp. 535–549. [3]
Foderaro, Lisa W. “Zuccotti Park Is Privately Owned, but Open to the Public.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 13 Oct. 2011. [4]
Folpe , Emily Kies. “A History of Washington Square Park.” Washington Square Park Conservancy, 2002. [5]
Gordon, Eden. “The Top 10 Secrets of NYC’s Zuccotti Park.” Untapped Cities, 6 Dec. 2017. [6]
Hou, Jeffrey. “Beyond Zuccotti Park: Making the Public.” Places Journal, 1 Sept. 2012. [7]
Jarus, Owen. “Tenochtitlán: History of Aztec Capital.” Live Science, 15 June 2017. [8]
Katz, Andrew. “Occupy Wall Street: How Protesters Made the Zuccotti Park Eviction Inevitable.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 25 Nov. 2011. [9]
Kreiter, Suzanne. “History of Boston Common.” BostonGlobe.com, Boston Globe, 30 Sept. 2007. [10]
Langer, Adina. “Places That Matter: Zuccotti Park.” Place Matters – A Joint Project of City Lore and the Municipal Art Society, Oct. 2011. [11]
Levitin, Michael. “The Triumph of Occupy Wall Street.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 10 June 2015. [12]
Light, Richard. “The Agora from Athens to Atlanta: Public Space as Marketplace, Park and Center of Urban Life.” Planetizen – Urban Planning News, Jobs, and Education, 15 Apr. 2010. [13]
Mark , Joshua J. “Acropolis.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2 Sept. 2009. [14]
“The Production of Space.” The People, Place, and Space Reader, by Jen Jack Gieseking et al., Routledge, 2014, pp. 289–293.  [15]
“Putting the Public Back into Public Space.” The People, Place, and Space Reader, by Jen Jack Gieseking and Kurt Iveson, Routledge, 2014, pp. 187–191. [16]
Reynolds, Francis. “After Zuccotti Park: Seven Privately Owned Public Spaces to Occupy Next.” The Nation, 14 Oct. 2011.  [17]
Ruddick, Susan. “Constructing Differences in Public Spaces: Race, Class and Gender as Interlocking Systems.” The People, Place, and Space Reader, by Jen Jack Gieseking and William Mangold, Routledge, 2014, pp. 7–11. [18]
Schwartz, Mattathias. “Pre-Occupied The Origins and Future of Occupy Wall Street.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 28 Nov. 2011. [19]
Weiss, Lois. “John Zuccotti, Tireless Champion of Downtown, Dies at 78.” New York Post, New York Post, 23 Nov. 2015. [20]
Wheeler, Heather. “Aztec Trade: Regional Markets and Long Distance Trading.” History on the Net, Regnery Publishing, 10 June 2005. [21]
Willis, Amy. “Occupy Wall Street Eviction: as It Happened 15 November.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 17 Nov. 2011. [22]


Badlands National Park Timeline

art – history – laws – key figures – maps – quotes – etc.

Works Cited

Badlands Ferret Festival. (n.d.). Retrieved April 08, 2018, from https://www.nps.gov/badl/learn/news/badlands-ferret-festival.htm

Badlands National Park Critical Park Issues. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from http://www.us-parks.com/badlands-national-park/critical-park-issues.html

Badlands NP: History (Early Development of the National Monument). (n.d.). Retrieved April 08, 2018, from https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/badl/sec5.htm

Badlands NP: History (Early Indians and Explorers). (n.d.). Retrieved April 07, 2018, from https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/badl/sec1.htm

Badlands NP: History (Legislation for Park Establishment). (n.d.). Retrieved April 08, 2018, from https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/badl/sec3.htm

Bevers, M., Hof, J., Uresk, D. W., & Schenbeck, G. L. (1997). Spatial Optimization of Prairie Dog Colonies for Black-Footed Ferret Recovery. Operations Research,45(4), 495-507.

Eagles, P. F., Halpenny, E. A., Moisey, R. N., & McCool, S. F. (2007). Tourism in national parks and protected areas: planning and management. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Everhart, W. C. (1983). The National Park Service (2nd ed.). Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.

Fossils. (n.d.). Retrieved April 06, 2018, from https://www.nps.gov/badl/learn/nature/fossils.htm

Gardner, J. (2018, January 20). What Does the Government Shutdown Mean for National Parks and Park Visitors? Retrieved March 04, 2018, from https://www.npca.org/articles/1733-what-does-the-government-shutdown-mean-for-national-parks-and-park-visitors

Kieley, J. F. (n.d.). A Brief History of the National Park Service. Retrieved April 04, 2018, from http://npshistory.com/centennial/0216/index.htm

Mayo, E. (1975). Tourism and the National Parks: A Psychographic and Attitudinal Study. Journal of Travel Research, 14(1), 14-21.

Osborn, H. F. (1913). Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy, 1823-1891. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

Reports, F. S. (2018, February 23). Gateway Arch National Park gets presidential seal of approval. Retrieved March 04, 2018, from http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/gateway-arch-national-park-gets-presidential-seal-of-approval/article_d5d582c3-4d30-53a1-854b-f1aa1c488ca3.html

Runte, A. (2010). National parks: the american experience. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing.

Sellars, R. W. (2009). Preserving nature in the national parks: a history: with a new preface and epilogue. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Saunt, C. (2015, March 10). 1776’s Other Declaration of Independence. Retrieved April 07, 2018, from http://www.whatitmeanstobeamerican.org/identities/1776s-other-declaration-of-independence/

Shuler, J. (1989). A revelation called the Badlands: Building a national park, 1909-1939. Interior, SD: Badlands Natural History Association.

Spence, M. D. (2000). Dispossessing the wilderness: Indian removal and the making of the national parks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Strickland, P. (2016, November 02). Life on the Pine Ridge Native American reservation. Retrieved April 09, 2018, from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/10/life-pine-ridge-native-american-reservation-161031113119935.html

The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-6/apush-american-west/a/ghost-dance-and-wounded-knee

10 Most Visited Units of the National Park System(2017) National Park Services. Retrieved from: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/upload/Visitation-historic-and-top-10-sites-2017.pdf


Fenway Park Timeline

I chose to research Fenway Park after switching my topic from Vacation Towns to stadiums because I found that stadiums interested me more. The reason I chose Fenway was because of the fact that it is so historic, and it is a symbol for the city of Boston. I also believe that the stadium is also a cultural artifact for the city, and it is more than just a stadium that baseball is played in. First of all, Fenway has been home to sports other than baseball such as hockey, Football, soccer, and others. it is also a place where the people of Boston are able to come together. The best example of this would be the 2013 World Series run. After the bombings of the Boston Marathon in 2013, the Red Sox and the city of Boston rallied together and coined the term “Boston Strong”, and the team and city were able to become stronger, rebuild, and remember those who were lost during this tragic event. The team would hang a jersey with the number 617, the Boston area code, and the words “Boston Strong, in the dugout for the rest of the season. This was topped off at the end of the season with a championship run, and during the championship parade, Red Sox outfielder Johnny Gomes placed the World Series trophy on the Finish Line that is painted on the street at Copley Square, in honor of those lost during the tragic event.

While putting this timeline together, I tried to focus on the history of Fenway as a whole, and really did not want to leave any important events out. This is because of the fact that the history is not too long, and I was able to fit most of the critical events into this timeline. Overall, I think that Fenway Park has a very deep history and it is a place that defines the city of Boston through athletics and culture. It has defined the neighborhood it resides in, and has been apart of the change that has been seen there as well. The neighborhood has changed over the years, and has seen improvements as the Red Sox became a bigger and bigger part of the city of Boston.

What I found particularly interesting about the history of Fenway Park, was that there had been some talk of tearing the ballpark down in the late 1990’s, as it had become run down and old. But, with new ownership, there was a $300 million revitalization project that was put in place to keep the Red Sox in their historical home. Now, Fenway Park is recognized as a historical landmark in the city of Boston, and it is a place where people can go to tour or see a game, and remember the history of Boston in this interactive “museum” of sorts.

Overall, I think that stadiums are interesting because they are symbols for cities in the sense of sport, but also culture. They are places where communities come together and interact, and they are places where culture is defined in certain places. Boston would not be the same without Fenway Park, as it is one of the Cities defining cultural locations.


Works Cited:

Brown, Garry. “Grand Opening of Fenway Park Overshadowed by Sinking of Titanic.” Masslive.com, 8 Apr. 2012, www.masslive.com/redsox/index.ssf/2012/04/grand_opening_of_fenway_park_o.html.

Borer, Michael Ian. “Important Places and Their Public Faces: Understanding Fenway Park as a Public Symbol.” The Journal of Popular Culture, Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111), 21 Mar. 2006, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00229.x.

Bluthardt, Robert F. “Fenway Park and the Golden Age of the Baseball Park, 1909–1915.” The Journal of Popular Culture, Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111), 5 Mar. 2004, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1987.00043.x.
“How the Red Sox Stadium Upgrade Revamped Boston Neighborhood.” CNN, Cable News Network, 30 Mar. 2017, www.cnn.com/style/article/red-sox-revamp-boston/index.html.
Shaffer, Jonas. “Vin Scully’s First Professional Broadcast: a 1949 Maryland Football Game.” Baltimoresun.com, 27 Sept. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/sports/baltimore-sports-blog/bal-vin-scully-s-first-professional-broadcast-a-1949-maryland-football-game-20160927-story.html.

Gammon, Sean, and Gregory Ramshaw. Heritage, Sport and Tourism: Routledge, 2010.

Borer, Michael Ian. “Negotiating the Symbols of Gendered Sports Fandom.” Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 72, no. 1, 2009, pp. 1–4., doi:10.1177/019027250907200101.

Kennedy, Lawrence W. Planning the City upon a Hill: Boston since 1630. University of Massachusetts, 1992.

“Fenway Park Through The Years.” Boston Red Sox, boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/fenwaypark100/timeline.jsp?year=1926.

Bird, Hayden. “The Green Monster Emerged from the Ashes of Fenway Fires.” Boston.com, The Boston Globe, 17 July 2016, www.boston.com/sports/boston-red-sox/2016/07/17/fenway-fires.

“Left Field Stands Damaged Badly in Fenway Park Fire – The Boston Globe.” BostonGlobe.com, 9 May 1926, www.bostonglobe.com/sports/1926/05/09/left-field-stands-damaged-badly-fenway-park-fire/K4AqXGVRb10Du7tT7uyMvJ/story.html.

“Timeline of Football at Fenway Park – The Boston Globe.” BostonGlobe.com, 17 Nov. 2015, www.bostonglobe.com/sports/2015/11/17/timeline-football-fenway-park/gZLkRb7XzXQahrHmAH9jXM/story.html.

“Polo Grounds – History, Photos and More of the New York Giants Former Ballpark.” Ballparks of Baseball – Your Guide to Major League Baseball Stadiums, www.ballparksofbaseball.com/ballparks/polo-grounds/.

“Abner Doubleday.” Abner Doubleday – New World Encyclopedia, www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Abner_Doubleday.

“Fenway Park, Boston Red Sox’s Ballpark – Ballparks of Baseball.” Ballparks of Baseball – Your Guide to Major League Baseball Stadiums, www.ballparksofbaseball.com/ballparks/fenway-park/.