Original text: He found that the average “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points. So, a teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile. The value-added scores also fluctuate between years. A teacher who gets a particular ranking in year one is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 1: Plagiarize the original text by copying portions of it word-for-word.

The “margin of error” of a New York City teacher was plus or minus 28 points. A teacher who has ranked in the 43^{rd} percentile might actually be anywhere between the 15^{th} percentile and the 71^{st} percentile. The values also fluctuate between years. A teacher who gets a particular ranking in one year is likely to get a different ranking the next year.

Example 2: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, without copying it word-for-word.

He found that teachers’ ranking for New York City teachers was plus or minus 28 points. For example, a teacher that was placed in the 43^{rd} percentile could actually be placed as low as the 15^{th} percentile and as high as the 71^{st} percentile. These values are not consistent from year to year, so a teacher who gets a certain ranking in one year will probably get a different ranking the next year.

Example 3: Plagiarize the original text by paraphrasing its structure too closely, and include a citation. Even though you cited it, paraphrasing too closely is still plagiarism.

He found that teachers’ ranking for New York City teachers was plus or minus 28 points. So a teacher that was ranked in the 43^{rd} percentile could be ranked 28 points higher or lower in actuality. Also the values change from year to year, and it is likely that the teacher will get a different ranking every year. (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 4: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, and include a citation to the original source.

He found that there was a 28 point margin of error for New York City’s teachers. So any teachers ranking could be 28 points higher or lower than they were actually ranking. The rankings change annually and it is unlikely that a teacher’s ranking will remain constant. (Ravitch, 270-271).

Example 5: Properly paraphrase from the original text by restating the author’s ideas in different words and phrases, add a direct quote, and include a citation to the original source.

He found that there was a 28 point margin of error for New York City’s teachers, for example, “teachers who has ranked at the 43rd percentile compared to his or her peers might actually be anywhere between the 15th percentile and the 71st percentile” (Ravitch, 270-271). The rankings change annually and its unlikely that a teacher’s ranking will remain constant.

Works cited.

Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. New York: Basic Books, 2011, pp. 270-71