Research Proposal on civic engagement

Posted on

Diana Ryan

ED 300

Jack Dougherty

Research Question: How have high school requirements for civic engagement changed and affected students’ long-term civic engagement?

Relevance:Today, more and more high schools are requiring their students to participate in community service. While it is obvious to me why one should be involved in their community, to others it might seem like a burden or chore. Given the different takes on civic engagement, it is important to know how it actually affects students, not just in their future participation, but in the rest of their daily lives. Many times I have seen students fight the requirement, dissatisfied with the administration’s reasoning for the coerced sense of volunteering, I would like my research to demonstrate the benefits and any cons that I may discover. Ultimately, I would like to know how civic engagement, whether voluntary or involuntary, shapes high school students into citizens.

Finding Resources: First I searched through Google Scholar to find some articles, but I found more on civics courses or service learning, but I found one article, the first listed in my bibliography. From there, I looked through that article’s bibliography and found some potentially useful readings. I also looked through the Education Week newspaper I picked up in class last week and found an article entitled, “Restoring Civic Purpose in Schools,” which I could also potentially use. I also used JSTOR, ERIC (which is where I found my first article), and searched through the Education Week website. I also used the education section of the NY Times and the Hartford Courant. Some of the search terms I utilized to find the resources I have thus far are the following “civic engagement high school”, “community service required high school”, “community service high school”, and “civic service.” I plan to make an appointment with a librarian to help me narrow my search and find more information on this recent high school movement to be civically engaged.


Dávila, Alberto, and Marie T. Mora. “Civic Engagement and High School Academic Progress: An Analysis Using NELS Data, [Part I of An Assessment of Civic Engagement and Academic Progress.” In University of Maryland, 2007.

Metz, Edward C., and James Youniss. “Longitudinal Gains in Civic Development Through School-Based Required Service.” Political Psychology 26, no. 3 (June 1, 2005): 413–437.

Serow, Robert C. “Students and Voluntarism: Looking into the Motives of Community Service Participants.” American Educational Research Journal 28, no. 3 (October 1, 1991): 543–556.

Shipps, Dorothy. “Pulling Together: Civic Capacity and Urban School Reform.” American Educational Research Journal 40, no. 4 (December 1, 2003): 841–878.

White, James E. Davis, H. Michael Hartoonian, Richard D. Van Scotter, & William E. “Restoring Civic Purpose in Schools.” Education Week, March 7, 2012.

“Community Service In High School – New York Times”, n.d.

“High School To Require Community Service.” Hartford Courant, n.d.

“Flunking Community Service Threatens High School Diploma.” Hartford Courant, n.d.

Research Proposal – Moody

Posted on

Ed 300 Research Proposal
Research Question: How have U.S public schools changed their approach to educating children with disabilities since the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was enacted in 1975? How and why have the goals of special education changed over time?

Significance: Before 1975, the vast majority of students with disabilities received no formal education. However, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 required all public schools accepting federal funds to provide disabled children with equal access to education. Since that time, the goals of educational programs for disabled students have evolved. Schools are now moving away from special education towards a policy of integration. There have been changes in teacher qualifications and training, stated objectives, and the overall approach to educating students with disabilities. This topic is relevant to ED 300 because it focuses on a major challenge that public schools in America face. The number of students diagnosed with some type of disability is growing at a rapid rate. When discussing proposals for education reform, it is often forgotten that these students do exist at public schools and must be taken into account in any reform strategy. I also have a personal interest in this topic as I have worked with teens with disabilities for several years. I am interested in learner what their experiences are like in the public school system and how that experience is different than it would have been at different points during the last three and a half decades.
Research Strategy: I searched google scholar for changes in special education policy and found a few promising results. However, these resources were not quite sufficient for a research paper. I then searched Education week’s database in search of articles from different time periods. I ran multiple searches of the database with each one focusing on a different five year period in order to uncover how the thinking about children with disabilities has changed over time (only goes back to 1981). I also used the TOR library resources and searched for relevant books in the Library catalog. A search for old newspaper articles was surprisingly not very successful. I plan on trying to find official curricula for disabled students from different eras but I am not sure where I can find this.

Biklen, Douglas. “After 10 Years of Mainstreaming: The Disabled Are Making Impressive Gains.” Education
Week, April 27, 1983.

Council for Exceptional Children. Teacher Education and Special Education. Reston, Va: Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 1977.

DuBois, Stephen. “13 Percent of Oregon Student Population – Nearly 85,000 – in Special Education Programs | The Republic.” The Republic, n.d.–Special-Education/.

Flanagan, Nancy. “Moving Special Education to the Virtual World.” Education Week – Teacher in a Strange Land, n.d.

Foster, Susan G. “‘Mainstreaming’ Still A Problem in Special Education.” Education Week, March 2, 1983.

Hyman, Irwin A., and Richard Roeder. “The Dumbing of Special Education.” Education Week, May 26, 1993.

Reese, Phillip, and Melody Gutierrez. “Budget Cuts, Change in Approach Place More Special Education Students in Regular Schools – The Sacramento Bee.” The Sacramento Bee, n.d.
Richardson, John G., and Tara L. Parker. “The Institutional Genesis of Special Education: The American Case.” American Journal of Education 101, no. 4 (1993): 359–392.

SCHEMO, Diana. “House Backs Vast Changes In Education For Disabled – New York Times”, n.d.

Schnaiberg, Lynn. “E.D. Report Documents ‘Full Inclusion’ Trend.” Education Week, October 19, 1994.

Shah, Nirvi. “S.C.’s Penalty for Cutting Special Ed. Spending Delayed.” Education Week – On Special Education, n.d.

Shah, Nirvi. “New Research Projects Explore Ways to Improve Special Education.” Education Week – On Special Education, n.d.

Singer, Judith, and John Butler. “The Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Schools as Agents of Social Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57, no. 2 (July 1, 1987): 125–153.
———. “The Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Schools as Agents of Social Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57, no. 2 (July 1, 1987): 125–153.

Skiba, Russell, Ada Simmons, Shana Ritter, Ashley Gibb, M. Rausch, Jason Cuadrado, and Choong-Geun Chung. “Achieving Equity in Special Education: History, Status, and Current Challenges.” Exceptional Children 74, no. 3 (January 1, 2008): 264–288.

United States. Accountability and IDEA: What Happens When the Bus Doesn’t Come Anymore?: Hearing Before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, Examining the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Focusing on Accountability from the Federal Government, and a Collaboration Between Institutions of Higher Education, Local Schools, and School Faculties for Teacher Preparation Programs, June 6, 2002. S. Hrg 107-672. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., [Congressional Sales Office], 2002.
———. Progress Toward a Free Appropriate Public Education; a Report to Congress on the Implementation of Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act. DHEW Publication (OE). Washington: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, [Education Division], U.S. Office of Education, 1979.

United States, and United States. Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Education, U.S. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitatative Services, 1980.

Viadero, Debra. “Students With Disabilities Are Overlooked In Push To Measure Skills.” Education Week, March 4, 1992.

Yell, Mitchell L, David Rogers, and Elisabeth Lodge Rogers. “The Legal History of Special Education What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been!” Remedial and Special Education 19, no. 4 (July 1, 1998): 219–228.

Research Proposal – Bilingualism: two-way immersion

Posted on

Research Question: What are the long-term effects of two-way bilingual immersion programs and how have schools implemented different variations of the model?

Relevance: Bilingual education is a controversial topic in the field of education. Today, schools are flooded with students that have limited English proficiency. In many cases, these students receive little assistance from schools when learning English and are forced lose a part of their heritage when their primary language is suppressed. Two-way bilingual immersion programs integrate native English speakers and native speakers of a different language for academic instruction through both languages. Unlike ESL where only language minority students are learning the dominant language, the programs designed by this model are options that benefit both language minority and language majority students. I am interested in researching what are the long-term effects and how do individual programs in different schools implement this model in their curriculum. Although studies have been conducted that examine the effectiveness of this model, many two-way immersion practitioners struggle with which approaches that are most beneficial. This topic sparked my interest because although I am bilingual, in my opinion bilingualism is looked down upon. I believe implementing bilingual education using the two-way immersion model in school’s curriculum will help produce better citizens for our society.

Research Strategy The main component of my research strategy was using two online databases: Google Scholar and Trinity Online Resources. First, I began my search using Google Scholar. I searched phrases such as “two-way immersion” and “two-way immersion bilingual program.” While reading the abstract of several articles, I decided it will be helpful to use articles that discussed the two-way immersion model itself so that I can get a better understanding of it and its goals. Then, I began to come across articles that focused on individual programs designed using this model which inspired me to look at a variety programs in different contexts and compare and contrast their approaches. When using Trinity Online Resources, I searched the same phrases in addition to “two-way immersion AND kindergarten,” “two-way immersion AND elementary,” “two-way immersion AND history,” and “two-way immersion AND change.” Searching these phrases gave me limited or no resources to look at.  Using Trinity Online Resources, I came across the book Realizing the Vision of Two-Way Immersion: Fostering Effective Programs and Classrooms. Because I am interested in using this book, I clicked on a link which directed me to the Center for Applied Linguistics and there found another potential source, Profiles in Two-Way Immersion Education. On the website, access to both books requires a fee and Trinity College does not have a copy in the library. If these sources are appropriate for my research, are there any other ways to have access to these books?



Alanís, Iliana. “A Texas Two-way Bilingual Program: Its Effects on Linguistic and Academic Achievement.” Bilingual Research Journal 24, no. 3 (2000): 225–248.

  • This article is a study that “examines a variety of student outcomes in the area of linguistic and academic development and determines whether students enrolled in a two-way bilingual program for a minimum of three years are achieving academically.”

Barnett, W. Steven, Donald J. Yarosz, Jessica Thomas, Kwanghee Jung, and Dulce Blanco. “Two-way and Monolingual English Immersion in Preschool Education: An Experimental Comparison.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 22, no. 3 (January 3, 2007): 277–293.

  • This article discusses an “experimental study that conducted comparing the effects of dual language, or two-way immersion (TWI) and monolingual English immersion (EI) preschool education programs on children’s learning.”

Cazabon, Mary, and Wallace E. Lambert. “Two-Way Bilingual Education: A Progress Report on the Amigos Program” (January 1, 1993).

  • “This report describes research that was conducted on the achievement in mathematics and in Spanish and English language arts of Amigos (Amigos two-way bilingual education program) students and students in control/comparison groups.

Christian, Donna. “Two‐Way Immersion Education: Students Learning Through Two Languages.” The Modern Language Journal 80, no. 1 (March 1, 1996): 66–76.

  • This article discusses the current state of two-way immersion programs in the United States through a study of over 160 schools between 1991 and 1994.

Christian, Donna, Christopher L. Montone, Kathryn J. Lindholm, and Isolda Carranza. Profiles in Two-Way Immersion Education. Delta Publishing Company, 1997.

  • “This volume begins the process of documenting that experience by profiling two-way immersion programs in three schools that are implementing different variations of the model.”

Howard, Elizabeth R., and Julie Sugarman. Realizing the Vision of Two-Way Immersion: Fostering Effective Programs and Classrooms. Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Publishing Company, 2007.

  • “Drawing on a decade of research, this book explores the question of effectiveness in two-way immersion by examining the development of bilingualism and biliteracy in elementary TWI students.”

Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn J. “The Rich Promise of Two-Way Immersion.” Educational Leadership 62, no. 4: 56–59.

  • This article discusses the benefits of two-way bilingual immersion programs and how they give students’ academic confidence and broader cultural awareness.

Senesac, Barbara V. Kirk. “Two-Way Bilingual Immersion: A Portrait of Quality Schooling.” Bilingual Research Journal 26, no. 1 (2002).

  • This article discusses two-way immersion programs in the context of the Inter-American Magnet School in Chicago.

Research proposal on changes in kindergarten

Posted on

Brigit Rioual

Question: In the United States, how has the curriculum and expectations of kindergartners changed since the early 1900s? Why have these changes occurred?

Relevance: My research question is relevant to Ed 300 because the changes in kindergarten are very important to education and education reform. I remember kindergarten being very much play and not very much work. I don’t ever remember having homework, but I do remember learning basic spelling words. However, today, kindergarten is much different than 15 years ago when I was there. Kindergarteners are now being pressured to learn more material than they typically would, so they are ready for standardized testing in a few years. I’m interested in looking at the original intentions of creating kindergarten and how and why kindergarten has went from being mostly play, to being mostly work.

Research Strategy: I first went to the Trinity library webpage and went to Trinity Online Resources. I then went to Educational Studies, and clicked on Educational Full-Text. I first searched changes in kindergarten, and got a couple of articles. I then searched kindergarten AND changes AND curriculum and got two other articles. One of my articles gave me the idea to look at play, so I then searched kindergarten AND play AND curriculum. I then tried history AND kindergarten. I also went through the Hartford Courant databases and looking at how kindergarten has developed and changed in Connecticut for some specific examples.

Primary Sources:

Kindergarten schools. (1878, Oct 05). Hartford Daily Courant (1840-1887), pp. 2-2.

This source discusses kindergarten in St. Louis and the advantages it would have to Connecticut.

The free kindergarten. (1884, Mar 31). Hartford Daily Courant (1840-1887), pp. 2-2.

The first meeting in Connecticut after a year of starting kindergarten discussing the positives and negatives.


Secondary Sources:

Russell, Jennifer Lin. “From Child’s Garden to Academic Press: The Role of Shifting Institutional Logics in Redefining Kindergarten Education.” American Educational Research Journal 48, no. 2 (April 2011): 236–267.

This source discusses how kindergarten has changed historically from once being a transition year to being an important beginning of formal academics. This is important to my question because it addresses the changes in what kindergarteners are expected and how the curriculum has changed.

Hatch, J. Amos, and Evelyn B. Freeman. “Who’s Pushing Whom? Stress and Kindergarten.” Phi Delta Kappan 70 (October 1988): 145–147.

This source is interesting because it discusses stress on kindergartens in the change from relaxed curriculum to a structured academic curriculum. There is a fear that children are being pushed too early by parents and by society. This article seems as if it will give me a different outlook on why kindergarten has changed based on a psychological view point but also give me some background information on why parents and society are pushing children so young.

Miller, Edward, and Joan Almon. “Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School.”Education Digest 75, no. 1 (2009): 42–45.

This article proposes that kindergarten is in trouble because they are being pressured by tests in math and reading and children need to go back to being able to play. They discuss the trouble pressuring the children to preform well on tests at such a young age and propose ways to fix kindergarten. They discuss the before and now also.

Curwood, Jen Scott. “What Happened to Kindergarten?” Instructor 117, no. 1 (2007): 28-32.

This source discusses how kindergarten has changed based on academic pressures of the 21st century and what has caused this change from kindergarten being more relaxed. They argue that academic pressures have a negative effect on kindergarten and they state what teachers can do to help their students.

Plevyak, Linda H., and Kathy Morris. “Why Is Kindergarten an Endangered Species?” Education Digest 67, no. 7 (March 2002): 23–26.

This source examines kindergarten today, being very much academic based and less play. Too many hours are being spent doing math and reading than before. It also discusses the pressures this is putting on their children, and on themselves. This article proposes that educators need to have more information on the development of children in kindergarten to make changes to the curriculum of kindergarten.

Hardy, Lawrence. “Q & A with Edward Miller, on the Importance of Play”, November 2009.

This Q&A discusses traditional kindergarten to todays kindergarten and how this change happened.

Jeynes, William H. “Standardized Tests and Froebel’s Original Kindergarten Model.” Teachers College Record 108, no. 10 (October 2, 2006): 1937–1959.

This discusses policies and how kindergarten has changed through the last couple of years. This is much more history based. This article discusses the found of kindergarten, his model, and how that has changed and developed since then.

“Friedrich Froebel: Founder, First Kindergarten”, September 2000.

A biography on Friedrich Froebel and his intentions through the creation of kindergarten.

Nawrotzki, Kristen D. “‘Like Sending Coals to Newcastle:’ Impressions from and of the Anglo-American Kindergarten Movements.” Paedagogica Historica 43, no. 2 (April 2007): 223–233.

History of Kindergarten in the US and Britain

Dombkowski, Kristen. “Will the Real Kindergarten Please Stand up?: Defining and Redefining the Twentieth-century US Kindergarten.” History of Education 30, no. 6 (November 2001): 527–545.

History of kindergarten in the US.