Notes and Bibliographies
Essay writing is one of the key skills that majors in History are meant
to acquire. As students carry out independent research projects for historiography, the junior seminar, the senior seminar or senior thesis, these skills are nurtured as students learn to measure their essays by the same standards as professional historians.
2. Why a Style Sheet for Citations?
Good academic writing is based on verifiable sources. People who read your
essays must be told exactly where you have found your information. Although some very
basic information can be expected to be common knowledge for your readers, all
other information that you have relied upon on while writing your essay must be credited in your notes and bibliography.
These notes may appear at the bottom of the page as footnotes or at the end of the paper as endnotes. Whether as footnotes or endnotes, they take the same form and should be numbered sequentially from start to end (do not begin the numbering anew on each page). Your bibliography will appear last in your essay, after all of the notes. It will be headed ‘Bibliography.’ Your references will be listed alphabetically (not numbered) in the bibliography, following the prescribed form.
It is essential to credit your sources in a consistent way, making use of a standard
system. The required system for the Trinity College Department of History is that of the Chicago Manual of Style. The Chicago System is the most common system used in English-language academic work in the humanities.
Please remember: reproducing or paraphrasing a source or an idea without crediting the original source is plagiarism.
3. The Chicago System:
The Chicago Manual of Style is available in the Trinity College Library in hard copy in the reference room and online at the Trinity Online website. To access the online version: 1. Go to the library website 2. Click on TOR: On Line Resources 3. Click on Cite-Source 4. Click on Citation Styles 5. Click on Chicago.
A “Quick Guide” to the system is also online at the following address:
The printed manual and the website give examples of both the humanities system and
the sciences system. For our department, only the humanities system is important, and
its main features are described below.
The manual and website also provide much information about academic writing in
general, which you may find very helpful.
4. Footnotes and Bibliography:
If a passage in your essay is a direct quote or a paraphrase of a source you have read,
you must provide a footnote to indicate your source. You must also do so if you have taken information that is not common knowledge from another source.
At the end of your essay, you must provide a bibliography that lists all the sources you have used, i.e. all sources mentioned in your footnotes as well as any additional sources that you looked at while writing the essay and that helped you, even if you did not quote or paraphrase them directly.
The way in which you refer to a source in a footnote and in the bibliography
are slightly different. Further down you will find examples for all main types of
sources, explaining how to put them in a footnote and how to put them in the
5. How to Quote:
If you copy a passage literally from one of your sources, this is “quoting” and the
quote needs to be sourced with reference to the page number(s). For quotes, be sure
to copy the words exactly, including punctuation, capitalization and spelling. If your
quotation is shorter than three lines, integrate it into the text. Use double quotation
marks (“ ”) to distinguish them from your paraphrases or your text, and use single
ones (‘ ’) for quotations within quotations. When you add something to quotes, use
square brackets [ ] to distinguish your additions from the original author’s wording.
Longer quotations need to be set off as a separate paragraph, without quotation marks.
Indent the entire paragraph slightly from both margins. If you delete any material from the quotation, replace it with an ellipsis (. . . ).
6. References to Books, Articles and Websites:
Below are examples of how to refer to the most common types of secondary and primary
sources (books, articles, websites). In each case, we provide examples both for the
reference in a footnote and in the bibliography. After each example, we provide some
notes in square brackets explaining some of the general principles underlying the
Please note that the use of commas and full stops is subject to clear rules in any
referencing system. The general rule for the Chicago system is that commas are used
to separate parts of a footnote reference, and full stops to separate parts of a
bibliography reference, with some exceptions noted below.
If you cannot find an example below for the type of source you need to refer to, please
consult the Chicago Manual or their website.
a) book by a single author
Firstname Lastname, Title in Italics (Place of publication: Name of publishing house,
year of publication), page number.
Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (London: Hutchinson, 1990), 36.
[NOTE: A footnote is usually a reference to a particular page or set of pages in a
book. Occasionally you might need to add a footnote to a passage that paraphrases an
entire book, or the main idea of an entire book. In that case, no page numbers are
Lastname, Firstname. Title in Italics. Place of publication: Name of publishing house,
year of publication.
Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China. London: Hutchinson, 1990.
[NOTE: Because a bibliography is always organized alphabetically by author’s
surname, the author’s surname comes first in the bibliography entry.]
b) book by more than one author
Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title in Italics (Place of publication:
Name of publishing house, year of publication), page numbers.
Jonathan D. Spence and Annping Chin, The Chinese Century: A Photographic
History (London: HarperCollins, 1996), 45-57.
[NOTE: When paraphrasing a number of pages in a source, use a hyphen between
page numbers, as in “45-57” in this example].
Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title in italics. Place of publication:
name of publishing house, year of publication.
Spence, Jonathan D., and Annping Chin. The Chinese Century: A Photographic
History. London: HarperCollins, 1996.
[NOTE: The first and second author are separated by a comma].
If you are dealing with a publication by four or more authors, all names go into the
bibliography entry, but in the footnote it suffices to give the name of the first author
followed by “et al” (Latin et alies, meaning “and others”). See the Chicago Manual
of Style or its website for examples.
c) edited volume
Firstname Lastname, ed., Title inItalics (Place of publication: Name of publishing
house, year of publication), page numbers.
Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China (Richmond:
Curzon Press, 1999), 33.
Lastname, Firstname, ed. Title in Italics. Place of publication: Name of publishing
house, year of publication.
Hockx, Michel, ed. The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China. Richmond:
Curzon Press, 1999.
d) translated book
François Furet, Interpreting the French Revolution, translated by Elborg Forster (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 102.
Furet, François, Interpreting the French Revolution. Translated by Elborg Forster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
e) article or chapter in an edited volume
Edited volumes are collections of articles by different authors, so you may find
yourself referring to only one particular article. In that case provide a specific reference to that article, rather than to the whole book. For the bibliography, the inclusive
page numbers become important, as they tell your reader where exactly in the
book the particular article can be found. Note: the pages in the footnote refer to the pages actually used or cited. The pages in the bibliography refer to the entire article or chapter.
Firstname Lastname, “Article Title in Quotes,” in Book Title in Italics, ed. Firstname
Lastname (Place of publication: Name of publishing house, year of publication), page
number or numbers.
Raoul David Findeisen, “From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-
Letter Genre,” in The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China, ed. Michel Hockx
(Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999), 72.
[NOTE that titles of articles are given in quotes and titles of
books in italics].
Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title in Quotes.” In Book Title in Italics, edited by
Firstname Lastname, inclusive page numbers. Place of publication: Name of publisher, year of publication.
Findeisen, Raoul David. “From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-
Letter Genre.” In The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China, edited by Michel
Hockx, 67-98. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999.
[NOTE: Put commas and full stops inside quotation marks. In British English commas and full stops appear outside the quotation marks. Please follow the American English convention].
f) article in a printed journal
Firstname Lastname, “Article Title in Quotes,” Journal Title in Italics Volume Number
(year): page numbers of pages actually used or cited.
Danielle Fuller, “Strange Terrain: Re-producing and Resisting Place-Myths in Two
Contemporary Fictions of Newfoundland,” Essays on Canadian Writing 82 (2004): 21-
Fuller, Danielle. “Strange terrain: Re-producing and resisting place-myths in two
contemporary fictions of Newfoundland.” Essays on Canadian Writing 82 (2004): 21-
Some journals have an Issue Number in addition to a Volume Number. Here is an example of how the reference should appear:
Kathleen Scherf, “A Legacy of Canadian Cultural Tradition and the Small Press: The
Case of Talonbooks,” Studies in Canadian Literature 25, no. 1 (2000): 131.
Scherf, Kathleen. “A Legacy of Canadian Cultural Tradition and the Small Press: The
Case of Talonbooks.” Studies in Canadian Literature 25, no. 1 (2000): 131-49.
g) article in an online journal
This category is meant for articles published online only. Nowadays, many articles
that appear in printed journals also have online versions. If you read printed articles
online, you may choose to refer to them as articles in printed journals, even though
you did not read them in print, or you may choose to treat them as articles in online
journals, in which case the format below applies.
Jeroen de Kloet, “Digitisation and Its Asian Discontents: The Internet, Politics and
Hacking in China and Indonesia,” First Monday 7, no. 9 (2002),
http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue7_9/kloet/index.html (accessed September 18,
De Kloet, Jeroen. “Digitisation and Its Asian Discontents: The Internet, Politics and
Hacking in China and Indonesia.” First Monday 7, no. 9 (2002),
http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue7_9/kloet/index.html (accessed September 18,
[NOTE: It is good practice to mention the date on which you accessed a particular
online source, because online materials can sometimes change contents rather
h) repeated references to the same source:
If you refer to the same source more than once in footnotes, you do not need to
provide the full citation every time. After the first (full) citation, every subsequent
citation in footnotes may consist of simply the author’s name, a shortened title, and
the page number. For instance:
(footnote at first occurrence)
Chen Xiaomei, Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 45-56.
(footnote at subsequent occurrences)
Xiaomei, Occidentalism, 78-98.
The Chicago Manual offers an option of simply citing the last name of author and the page number for a repeat reference (for example Xiaomei, 78-98). Do not follow this form. The Department of History requires the ‘shortened title’ form. Also, The Chicago Manual no longer recommends the use of ibid. and disallows op. cit. Do not use these abbreviations.
7. Other Types of Sources:
Here are examples of how to footnote documents found in archives:
Tonto, “Travels with the Lone Ranger,” Report, July 1871, Lone Ranger papers, box 42, Library of Congress Manuscripts Division, Washington, D.C.
Note that you must say what sort of document it is. In this case it is a report. A pamphlet or margin note or whatever it is that you have examined must be so labeled. The only exception is a letter. Here is an example of how to cite a letter found in the archives:
Tonto to Lone Ranger, 19 September 1945, Lone Ranger papers, box 42, Library of Congress Manuscripts Division, Washington, D.C.
The Chicago Manual online at the TOR demonstrates how to cite government reports, maps, and exhibitions. The Chicago Manual of Style is available in a hard copy at the Trinity College Library and online at http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The Manual gives details for all other types of sources you might encounter.